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====== Connecting to the SDF VPN with PPTP ======
===== Contents =====
* [[#overview|Overview]]
* [[#setup|Setting it up]]
* [[#xp|Connecting in Windows XP]]
* [[#vista|Connecting in Windows Vista]]
* [[#linux|Connecting in Linux]]
* [[#freebsd|Connecting in FreeBSD]]
* [[#osx|Connecting in Mac OS X]]
* [[#wrapup|The Wrap-up]]
===== Overview =====
The Virtual Private Network (VPN) provided by SDF has a number of uses. The most beneficial of that is to allow confidential communication over a public network. Basically, the SDF VPN will allow you (once routing is enabled) to communicate securely over an insecure connection such as a public Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) network.
The major benefit of this over SSH forwarding/tunneling is that it is much easier to configure and automatically tunnels **all** connections leaving your computer, and not just those specifically configured for forwarding. Some may see this as a negative aspect of the VPN, however.
@ -190,4 +177,4 @@ Enjoy!
----
$Id: PPTP.html,v 1.2 2011/06/15 15:51:32 avoyager Exp $
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@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ Now we've specified our '"links"' table's structure. We have to commit the revis
Going into the details of this command is way outside the scope of this document, I wouldn't have used it in this tutorial if it wasn't for it being such an easy way to generate a database across different backends.
[[| ]]
]]
===== A Quick Demonstration! =====

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----
===== [[|What is Rails?]] =====
===== What is Rails? =====
[[http://www.rubyonrails.org/|Ruby on Rails]] is a WebDev framework written in the [[http://www.ruby-lang.org/|Ruby]] programming language.
===== [[|Prerequisites]] =====
===== Prerequisites =====
* You must be a MetaARPA member to use Rails (see [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?access|memberships]] page).
* Most Rails applications use a database, so you'll probably want dba membership as well (see [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?access|memberships]] page). However MetaARPA members may use sqlite if they so desire.
@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ Start the webrick server on the port that is equal to your uid, which you can ob
Then point your browser at "http://yourdomain:<YOUR UID>" You should now be looking at the default 'Welcome to Rails page'. Now you can begin to develop your rails app.
===== [[|Hello, world of Rails!]] =====
===== Hello, world of Rails! =====
Rails is a Model-View-Controller framework. Rails accepts incoming requests from a browser, decodes the request to a controller, and calls an action method in that controller. The controller then invokes a particular view to display the results to the user. The good news is that Rails takes care of most of the internal plumbing that links all these actions. To write our simple Hello, World! application, we need code for a controller and a view. We don't need code for a model, because we're not dealing with any data. Let's start with the controller.
@ -155,7 +155,7 @@ It might be annoying, but the error is perfectly reasonable (apart from the weir
Save the file hello.rhtml, and refresh your browser window. You should see it display our friendly greeting. Notice that we didn't have to restart the application to see the update. During development, Rails automatically integrates changes into the running application as you save files.
===== [[|Maintenance and Utility Scripts]] =====
===== Maintenance and Utility Scripts =====
There are currently two main scripts that MetaARPA members can run to manage their RoR instance. The first is //ror// which is used to toggle automatic startup of your RoR instance upon system boot. The second is //railsctl// which allows you to //start//, //stop// and //restart// your RoR instance.

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====== Using SSH for connections/transfer to/from SDF ======
===== Contents =====
* Overview
* [[#sdf|SDF issues]]
* ssh and [[#port_tunneling|port tunneling]]
* [[#public_key|public key]] authentication
* [[#socks|socks tunneling]] from a school/uni network
===== Overview =====
This tutorial discusses some important points concerning use of SSH for encrypted traffic to and from SDF. Your first source for information are the manpages: "man ssh" - read them, if you want to make good use of "ssh" and company!
//Note: this text has been assembled from articles written by several users; therefore, layout and wording may vary, and topics can be referred at several places.//
@ -178,4 +168,4 @@ For additional security and privacy, configure Firefox to do remote DNS lookups
----
$Id: SSH-SDF.html,v 1.8 2008/07/12 05:38:37 cowl Exp cowl $
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//Updated for CentOS 7//
===== Contents =====
* [[#basics|Basics]]
* [[#networking|Networking]]
* [[#ssh|Setting up SSH]]
* [[#security|Security]]
* [[#software|Software Management]]
* [[#updating|Updating the System]]
* [[#reference|References]]
===== Basics =====
@ -173,4 +164,4 @@ To update your system, run the following command:
* [[http://wiki.centos.org/|CentOS Wiki]]
----
$Id: VPS_Centos.html,v 1.10 2017/01/04 17:30:19 kickback Exp $
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====== Debian on SDF VPS ======
===== Contents =====
* [[#basics|Basics]]
* [[#timezone|Timezone]]
* [[#networking|Networking]]
* [[#ssh|Setting up SSH]]
* [[#pkg-mgt|Package Management]]
* [[#firewall|Firewall Setup]]
* [[#upgrading|Software and Distribution Updating]]
* [[#memreduce|Reducing Memory Usage]]
===== Basics =====
@ -198,4 +188,4 @@ To update your system, run the following commands:
or uninstall it:
apt-get remove openssh-server
----
$Id: VPS_Debian.html,v 1.19 2018/02/22 02:06:34 slugmax Exp $
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{{http://sdf.org/tutorials/images/NetBSD.png}}
====== NetBSD on SDF VPS ======
===== Contents =====
{{http://sdf.org/tutorials/images/NetBSD.png}}
* [[#first_steps|First Steps]]
* [[#user_accounts|User Accounts]]
* [[#system_clock|System Clock]]
* [[#networking|Networking]]
* [[#pkgsrc|pkgsrc]]
* [[#tips|Miscellaneous Tips]]
* [[#references|References]]
===== First Steps =====
@ -120,4 +111,4 @@ After examining "/tmp/purgelist" and removing any files you want to keep, do:
* [[http://wiki-static.aydogan.net/The_NetBSD_System_Manager%27s_Manual|The NetBSD System Manager's Manual]]
----
$Id: VPS_NetBSD.html,v 1.23 2018/02/22 15:12:01 slugmax Exp $
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Some parts of this tutorial are copy&paste from Plan 9 wiki because they fit the flow of the writing as they are, so no claim from SDF's users is made over the authorship of such parts, which are clearly labeled as taken from Plan 9's wiki.
===== Contents =====
* [[#install|Install]]
* [[#basics|Basics]]
* [[#know|Things To Know When You Get to Plan 9's shell]]
* [[#networking|Networking]]
* [[#drawterm|Drawterm on Plan 9]]
* [[#applications|A Few Applications]]
* [[#adduser|Adding a User]]
* [[#timezone|Configure Timezone]]
* [[#links|Links (tutorials, videos, etc.)]]
===== Get involved =====
Plan 9 has active comunities which mostly interact by email. You are encouraged to join the [[http://mail.9fans.net/listinfo/9fans|9fans mailing list]] where discussion about Plan 9 and related technologies happen.
@ -74,4 +62,4 @@ Activities of the SDF Plan9 Boot Camp include:
* [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pydckb9ZU8Y|Acme Editor Demo]]==== Books ====
* [[http://lsub.org/who/nemo/9.intro.pdf|Introduction to Operating Systems Abstractions Using Plan 9 from Bell Labs [PDF]]]
----
$Id: VPS_Plan9.html,v 1.41 2020/06/16 00:17:20 smj Exp $
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Who says you need to shell out $500US for a video card to play a decent game?
==== Contents ====
- [[#intro|Introduction]]
- [[#tips|General Tips]]
- [[#category|Games by Category]]
* [[#adventure|Text Adventure]]
* [[#rpg|RPG / Dungeon]]
* [[#puzzle|Puzzle]]
* [[#arcade|Arcade / Action]]
* [[#board|Board / Card games]]
* [[#animation|ASCII Animation]]
* [[#text|Jokes / Random Text]]
- [[#comgames|Dopewars, Mazewars, and Netris]]
- [[#credits|Credits]]
----
===== [[|Introduction]] =====
===== Introduction =====
Long before today's multi-million color pallets and 3d rendering engines there was one color and a TTY.
@ -27,7 +10,7 @@ That is not to say, however, that text games are "old" or "outdated" or that gam
SDF has a good selection of text based games for your enjoyment with many genres from which to choose. Within those categories you'll also find a diverse selection of games. Maybe you are looking for a quick hit of space invaders while your code compiles. Perhaps you'd like to start a game of nethack which could take you many session over many months to complete. If you'd like to sit and play a game of tetris by yourself SDF can accommodate you but if you'd rather interact with other SDFers in a game of mazewar or netris those options are also available. No matter what your preferences are, no matter what your current mood is, odds are good that SDF will have something for you.
===== [[|General Tips]] =====
===== General Tips =====
All games are started by typing the game's name at the command line on the appropriate system. You may be able to get information on command line options and game play by typing //man gamename// on SDF or //help gamename// on twenex.org(TOPS-20).
@ -41,11 +24,11 @@ Also, most games contain some sort of in game help. To get the most out of your
Did you play a game on SDF and loved it? Hated it? Then use the //"game-review"// command at the SDF shell to submit a review for [[http://ascii-games.org|ascii-games.org]]. Your reviews will help others find a game that suits their gaming tastes.
===== [[|Games by Category]] =====
===== Games by Category =====
Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 system. A complete list of games on SDF can always be found by typing //"games"// at the shell prompt. TOPS-20 games can be listed by typing //"help games"// on twenex.org. Please visit [[http://ascii-games.org|ascii-games.org]] for user submitted reviews of these games.
* ==== [[|Text Adventure]] ====Text adventure games are interactive fiction adventures where the user must navigate the game based on the text based description of the player's in-game surroundings. The lack of graphics helps to keep text based adventure games feeling fresh even decades after their initial release.
* ==== Text Adventure ====Text adventure games are interactive fiction adventures where the user must navigate the game based on the text based description of the player's in-game surroundings. The lack of graphics helps to keep text based adventure games feeling fresh even decades after their initial release.
* [[telnet://mud.sdf.org:4000|SDFmud]] - SDFmud makes its triumphant return!
* phantasia - An interterminal fantasy game. Gain experience killing monsters and other players!
* advent - 430 pt. Colossal Cave (Version II). (TOPS-20)
@ -55,7 +38,7 @@ Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 s
* haunt - Can you solve the mystery of Chez Moose? BONG! (TOPS-20)
* mdl105 - Write your own adventure games! (TOPS-20)
* zork - The classic underground maze/puzzle. (TOPS-20)
* ==== [[|RPG / Dungeon]] ====These games involve navigating some sort of dungeon or maze. Unlike text adventures, these games often (though not always) contain some sort of ASCII-graphical interface. These games are usually a bit more free-flowing than their text-based counterparts as well. Many of these games allow multiplayer interactive play. These games are marked with an (M).
* ==== RPG / Dungeon ====These games involve navigating some sort of dungeon or maze. Unlike text adventures, these games often (though not always) contain some sort of ASCII-graphical interface. These games are usually a bit more free-flowing than their text-based counterparts as well. Many of these games allow multiplayer interactive play. These games are marked with an (M).
* dopewars - multi-user virtual urban life. (M)[[index.cgi?tutorials/ascii-gaming#comgames|[see note below]]]
* mdg - John Gonnerman's MultiUser Dungeon Game. (M)
* nethack - Can you find the Amulet of Yendor and survive?
@ -64,7 +47,7 @@ Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 s
* hunt - multi-user maze/shoot.
* mazewar - A System V UNIX version of the classic. (M)[[index.cgi?tutorials/ascii-gaming#comgames|[see note below]]]
* cave - Multiplayer Dungeon Game. (TOPS-20)(M)
* ==== [[|Puzzle]] ====Puzzle games rely on the player's critical thinking and problem solving skills to complete.
* ==== Puzzle ====Puzzle games rely on the player's critical thinking and problem solving skills to complete.
* greed - How far will your greed take you?
* c4 - Connect Four.
* life - jpf's life simulator for SDF.
@ -78,7 +61,7 @@ Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 s
* manhunt - Can you escape from the LUGIMEN cops of ARCTURUS IV? (TOPS-20)
* wumpus - Can you slay the suckerfooted WUMPUS? (TOPS-20)
* sst - Super Star Trek. Can you protect the Federation from total annihilation?
* ==== [[|Arcade / Action]] ====Arcade type games involve real-time interaction. You'll have to dodge, duck, dip, dive and dodge your way to victory in these games.
* ==== Arcade / Action ====Arcade type games involve real-time interaction. You'll have to dodge, duck, dip, dive and dodge your way to victory in these games.
* atc - Air Traffic Controller, not really arcade, but real real-time!
* invaders - Space Invaders.
* lander - Can you land the lunar module (LEM)?
@ -87,7 +70,7 @@ Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 s
* worm - You are a worm that eats numbers and becomes unwieldy.
* moon - Jochen Voss's moon-buggy.
* packman - Very cool ASCII packman for true VT100. (TOPS-20)
* ==== [[|Board / Card Games]] ====Just what the title says.
* ==== Board / Card Games ====Just what the title says.
* bj - Black Jack
* knight - Knight's tour matrix.
* bkg - CMU's Multi-player/spectator Backgammon(TOPS-20)
@ -95,11 +78,11 @@ Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 s
* gin - The card game GIN. (TOPS-20)
* tech - TECH Chess. (TOPS-20)
* tech2 - TECH2 Chess. (TOPS-20)
* ==== [[|ASCII Animation]] ====Short ASCII movies.
* ==== ASCII Animation ====Short ASCII movies.
* aybabtu - sdf's ALL YOUR BASE ARE BELONG TO US!
* linux - Linux massacre simulator.
* suicide - Animated suicide trio.
* ==== [[|Jokes / Random Text]] ====These "games" output random jokes, one-liners, quotes, or other information. Please be advised that some of these might output text that some would consider offensive. These programs have been labeled (R).
* ==== Jokes / Random Text ====These "games" output random jokes, one-liners, quotes, or other information. Please be advised that some of these might output text that some would consider offensive. These programs have been labeled (R).
* oneliner - SDF one-liners .. since 1987
* smj - Display quips and commentary by your sysadmin.
* fortune - Print a random, hopefully interesting, adage.
@ -114,14 +97,14 @@ Here is a rough categorization of the games available on SDF and SDF's TOPS-20 s
* tingle - Nearly lewd, but requires imagination. (TOPS-20)
* today - A history lesson. (TOPS-20)
===== [[|Dopewars, Mazewars, and Netris]] =====
===== Dopewars, Mazewars, and Netris =====
A special note for Dopewars, Mazewars, and Netris:
These games are fairly popular. They represent a good way to have fun and interact with fellow SDFers. Though they can be started from the command line, the best way to start a multiplayer game of dopewars, mazewars, or netris is to hop into SDF's [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?tutorials/comnotirc|COMMODE]] by typing //com// at the shell. You can then find other's to play with and launch those games directly from com.
===== [[|Credits]] =====
===== Credits =====
Much information contained herein was gleaned from //"games"//, //"help games"//(TOPS-20), and [[http://ascii-games.org|ascii-games.org]]. Much thanks to the maintainer(s) of those resources.
$Id: ascii-gaming.html,v 1.10 2012/05/28 23:20:43 credmon Exp $
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The "bboard" is a threaded multi discussion bulletin board. It goes back when the original SDF was just a BBS. You may think of it as a corkboard at a community center where members post notes with thumb tacks. It is, along with commode, one of the best ways to get help and news from SDF-EU. Voting of new features and changes on SDF-EU policies also take place at the bboard (ARPA membership or above required)
===== [[|Some relevant bboards]] =====
===== Some relevant bboards =====
* To ask for help, use **"<HELPDESK>"** to have your query answered by another user
* All system notices are posted on **"<ANNOUNCE>"**
@ -11,9 +11,9 @@ The "bboard" is a threaded multi discussion bulletin board. It goes back when th
* **"<ARPA>"** and **"<META>"** boards are used for ARPA and MetaARPA related questions.
* Member services (such as VPN or VOIP) have their own board for questions and support.
===== [[|Getting around]] =====
===== Getting around =====
==== [[|Listing boards]] ====
==== Listing boards ====
Type "bboard" on your shell. You will be presented with a list of current bboards (Boards Listing), sorted by most recent activity.
@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ Type "bboard" on your shell. You will be presented with a list of current bboard
To navigate the boards listings, use "F" (Forward) and "B" (Backward) keys to go up and down. When you reach the end of the list (or you press "Q"), you will enter in Command Mode, and a prompt will be presented to you. Every time you run "bboard" you are placed in the **"<GENERAL>"** board by default, hence the prompt "<GENERAL> Command: ".
==== [[|Browsing messages]] ====
==== Browsing messages ====
Say you want to review the **"<SDFEU>"** bboard for news about SDF-EU. On the Command Mode, type "G" (GOTO) followed of the name of the bboard (in this case "G → SDFEU") You will enter in Posts Listing, with all entries at the **"<SDFEU>"** bboard sorted by activity (most recent first)
@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ Say you want to review the **"<SDFEU>"** bboard for news about SDF-EU. On
Like in the Boards Listing, you can navigate the Posts Listing with keys "F" and "B". Pressing "Q" will return you to Command Mode.
==== [[|Read a message]] ====
==== Read a message ====
Post #3 “Meetup at EuroBSCcon” caught your attention. To read it, press "T" (TYPE), followed by the post number (in this case "T → 3") This will put you on Reading Mode at the first message from the thread. You could also start reading the thread from a specific message; simply enter "T → 3.2" if you want to start reading the thread #3 from the second reply.
@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ Post #3 “Meetup at EuroBSCcon” caught your attention. To read it, press "T"
<SDF.3.0>(3)[ <ENTER> to follow thread, (R)EPLY or (Q)UIT ]
==== [[|Post a message/reply]] ====
==== Post a message/reply ====
To post a new thread on the bboard you are currently in, press "P" (POST) and enter a subject. To publicly reply to a post, press "R" (REPLY) If you are in Reading Mode, you will reply to the thread you are currently in. If you are in Posts Listing, you will be asked for the post number you want to reply. Either way you will end up in the pico editor <sup>[[#fn__1|]]</sup>. Write down your reply and press "CTRL-x" to finish you post.
@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ To post a new thread on the bboard you are currently in, press "P" (POST) and en
^ Reply ^
| &lt;SDFEU.1&gt; Command: REPLY (A NUMBER) 3 REPLY to "Meetup at EuroBSDcon" ? (y/n) You have replied: ----------------------------------------------------------- I would love to! This BULLETIN contains 16 characters in 4 words of 2 lines. ----------------------------------------------------------- POST your REPLY? (y/n) |
==== [[|...and much more]] ====
==== ...and much more ====
Now that you are confortable with the bboard, try exploring additional features:
@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ Now that you are confortable with the bboard, try exploring additional features:
* Read the the intro ("?") and the list of commands ("H").
* Check the man page (type "man bboard" at your shell) for a complete reference of settings at startup.
===== [[|Command Reference]] =====
===== Command Reference =====
^ "(?)" | What is the BBOARD? |
^ "(L)IST" | List bulletin summaries |
@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ Now that you are confortable with the bboard, try exploring additional features:
\\ <sup>[[#fnt__1|]]</sup> If you want to change your default editor, check the "bboard" man page via the **man bboard** command at the shell prompt. \\ \\
===== [[|Customizing bboard(1)]] =====
===== Customizing bboard(1) =====
Many SDF users find the lack of word-wrap and spell-checking when posting in bboard(1) frustrating. If a Vi editor is acceptable, some rudimentary auto-wrapping and spell-checking can be accomplished in //bboard(1)// with the following configuration files in your HOME (~$USER/) directory:

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====== Building a website on SDF ======
----
===== Contents =====
* [[#intro|Introduction]]
* [[#getting_started|Getting Started]]
* [[#firstpage|Your First Page!]]
* [[#problems|Problems]]
* [[#diagnose|Diagnose]]
\\
===== Introduction =====
Creating your own websites can be fun and SDF gives webspace to all its validated users, so the moment you become validated you can begin creating your own websites straight away.
@ -35,13 +22,13 @@ Creating your first page is **__SO__** easy! First you'll need to open a text ed
&lt;/body&gt;&lt;/html&gt;
Now that you have copied the text out into 'nano', you need to save the file. To do this, hold down the 'CTRL' key on your keyboard and whilst pressing that, press the letter 'o'.Right, now, do you remember that URL you selected when you ran '"mkhomepg"'? Open a web browser and type that into the address bar. Hopefully, after a few seconds. You should see your very own web page!
===== [[|Problems]] =====
===== Problems =====
The most important thing you need to have is **patience**. Sometimes updates when running "mkhomepg" may take a few hours to complete, sometimes they will occur almost immediately. By using the higher functions of your brain and **patience** you will solve a lot of the problems you may meet!
In case a page is not found on your site, the client may be forwarded to a page of sdf.org or redmartian, which can be confusing (but which is in fact completely reasonable, as all the domains belong to one entity). If you want to prevent this also for broken links, you have to set up error handler documents. Please consult the faq:WEB:7 item for this!
===== [[|Diagnose]] =====
===== Diagnose =====
If your site is hosted on sdf.org (you are an ARPA member) then you can grep inside the httpd log file in "/var/log". For example:
@ -53,4 +40,4 @@ If your site is hosted on ma.sdf.org (you are a MetaARPA member) then your can l
For aditional help, check the information in the FAQ page [[https://sdf.org/?faq?WEB?05|"What About the Access Logs, Statistics, and Quotas?"]]
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@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
\\
===== [[|What is COM?]] =====
===== What is COM? =====
So you type '"irc"' at the command prompt hoping to join your favorite channel and instead find yourself in this strange world where you have to press space to talk, the commands you expect don't work, and you can't even figure out how to quit (hint: try '**q**'). This is 'COM' (aka, 'COMMODE' or just 'com').
@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ Things //not// to do:
* Attempt to use any IRC commands (they won't work and will make you look foolish).
* Repeat the same question over and over.
===== [[|Getting started: a walkthrough]] =====
===== Getting started: a walkthrough =====
COM is based around 'rooms'. The default room you enter when you start the program is 'lobby', SDF's Welcoming Room.
@ -70,11 +70,11 @@ Just type the number of lines you are interested in and finish with return; you'
When you are ready to quit, type **q** to leave com. You will see an **"Unlinking TTY .."** message appear.
===== [[|FAQ]] =====
===== FAQ =====
How do I use backspace in com?Try **-** in command mode in com to toggle behavior. Or, use stty or 'bksp' to set the backspace correctly.How can I be in com multiple times?The basic rule is to be on a different server when entering com. Some common ways of doing this is to use screen, run ssh twice, etc.How do I send private messages?Use the **s** command in command mode: **s**user@host. Please note the @host portion; this is a required element of the command. If the user is in another room, add an optional host parameter to send the message: **s**user@host room.How do I see what happened in the past?Use the **r** key to review. Use **R** followed by a number to control how many lines of history to review. The **p** key can be used to see the history of another room: **p**roomname. The **p** command can also take an optional number of lines to display: **p**roomname number.How do I see who is in another room?Use **W** (upper case w) to see who is in another room.I see "&lt;wliao@iceland DUMPs in 22 characters of 2 words in 3 lines&gt;". What does that mean?Use the **r** or **R** command.I see "&lt;wliao appears&gt;". How do I do that?Use the **e**mote command in command mode. Use **e** followed by the action at the prompt: ":emote&gt; tests this out". Why do I have to keep pressing the spacebar to talk?Other keys can be used to enter input mode. Try the **h** to see what keys are not being used such as the enter key.How do I erase a line?Use ^u (control + u) to erase the line. ^w (control + w) will erase a word. I accidentally ignored somebody! I didn't mean to do that :('i'gnore the same user again to remove from the ignore list. Why isn't anybody talking?That's life. Harden up.
===== [[|COM Commands]] =====
===== COM Commands =====
Here is a list of commonly used COM Commands. It only covers the basics, so refer to the online help (with '**h**') or man page for more information. Some of the commands will not be available to pre-validated users.

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====== [[index.html|SDF ARC]] ======
====== [[index.html|SDF ARC ======
===== SDF.ORG's Amateur Radio Club =====

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@ -9,11 +9,11 @@
* [[#sec-5|5 Accessing It Remotely]]
* [[#sec-6|6 More info on CVS ]]
===== [[|1 Introduction]] =====
===== 1 Introduction =====
This tutorial is not about using a version control system, or about using cvs, but about how to get started with cvs on SDF
===== [[|2 Creating A Repository]] =====
===== 2 Creating A Repository =====
The cvs repository is just a simple directory. Our repository will be made in our home directory, and we will name it "cvs".
@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ Creating our repository is very simple:
That's it.
===== [[|3 Importing A Directory:]] =====
===== 3 Importing A Directory: =====
Let's add our website into our repository:
@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ In this command
You can modify the message, the module name and the tags to your liking, just keep in mind that in the rest of this tutorial we will use 'html' for the module name.
===== [[|4 Checking It Out]] =====
===== 4 Checking It Out =====
cd
mkdir tmp
@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ You can modify the message, the module name and the tags to your liking, just ke
This should be enough to convince ourselves that the directory is now under version control.
===== [[|5 Accessing It Remotely]] =====
===== 5 Accessing It Remotely =====
We can access our repository from the outside using ssh, to do this we need to set the environment variable CVS_RSH so that cvs will use ssh, using for instance:
@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ After having made our modifications, we just need to check our changes back in:
cvs update # if we made some changes elsewhere
cvs -d ':ext:user@freeshell.org:/path/to/homedir/cvs' ci html
===== [[|6 More info on CVS ]] =====
===== 6 More info on CVS =====
* [[http://www.cvshome.org|cvs home]]
* [[http://www.cvshome.org/cvs/manual/cvs-1.11.21/cvs.html|Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist]]

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@ -4,4 +4,4 @@
* An Overview of the Equipment
* A Basic Configuration
* A Local Area Network
* [[#dns|DNS Servers]]\\ ===== [[|DNS Servers]] =====[[http://www.opendns.com/|opendns.com]]\\ \\ \\ [[https://www.lifewire.com/free-and-public-dns-servers-2626062|here]]\\ $Id: dsl.html,v 1.6 2019/11/15 18:37:39 thegiant Exp $
* [[#dns|DNS Servers]]\\ ===== DNS Servers =====[[http://www.opendns.com/|opendns.com]]\\ \\ \\ [[https://www.lifewire.com/free-and-public-dns-servers-2626062|here]]\\ $Id: dsl.html,v 1.6 2019/11/15 18:37:39 thegiant Exp $

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@ -2,23 +2,12 @@
This tutorial discusses advanced topics concerning e-mail on SDF: spam filtering, automatic processing, forwarding. It is probably only useful for ARPA members.
==== Contents ====
- [[#intro|Introduction, and what this is //not//]]
- [[#forward|Forwarding E-Mail]]
- [[#fetch|Fetching E-Mail]]
- [[#spam|Fighting Spam]]
- [[#whitelist|Personal White List Against Spam]]
- [[#dnsbl|Using Procmail With a DNSBL]]
- [[#ssh-smtp|Use SDF SMTP Server Remotely via SSH]]
----
===== [[|Introduction, and what you //will not// find here]] =====
===== Introduction, and what you //will not// find here =====
Here we discuss advanced topics for e-mail processing on SDF, mainly automatic processing of incoming messages with "procmail", and forwarding issues. As "procmail" is only available to ARPA members, the contents of this tutorial will be mostly useless to user members. \\ For basic info about e-mail (addresses, reader programs, file size, etc), please read the corresponding [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?faq?EMAIL|FAQ]] entry - and if you still have problems with basic sending and receiving of messages via SDF, this tutorial is most probably not for you!
===== [[|Forwarding E-Mail]] =====
===== Forwarding E-Mail =====
The "sendmail" system allows for automatic forwarding of incoming mail to other addresses or even programs (filters).\\ The file "$HOME/.forward" may contain the following types of lines:
@ -26,11 +15,11 @@ somebody@somewhere.comexternal e-mail address, where a copy of each mail will be
However, if you want to do more than forwarding to one address, use of "procmail" is highly recommended! In fact, it is best to set up [[#nospam|nospam -e]], which will generate a .forward file with a line calling procmail, and then to modify the resulting ".procmailrc".
===== [[|Fetching E-Mail]] =====
===== Fetching E-Mail =====
Use "fetchmail" to collect messages from accounts you might have elsewhere. The messages are given to "procmail" (see [[#forward|Forwarding E-Mail]] above) for further processing.
==== [[|Sample ".fetchmailrc"]] ====
==== Sample ".fetchmailrc" ====
poll pop.provider.net
proto pop3
@ -40,7 +29,7 @@ Use "fetchmail" to collect messages from accounts you might have elsewhere. The
mda "/path/to/procmail -f- ~/.procmailrc"
ssl;
===== [[|Fighting Spam]] =====
===== Fighting Spam =====
To fight unwanted bulk e-mail (spam), there are several possibilities available on SDF:
@ -49,11 +38,11 @@ To fight unwanted bulk e-mail (spam), there are several possibilities available
- The [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?faq?EMAIL?07|FAQ]] has more information about [[#nospam|nospam]], available on SDF.
- The automatic mail processor "procmail" (see "man procmail" for more information) allows to filter incoming mail following user defined rules; in particular, you can generate a [[#whitelist|white list]] of sender addresses you know as good, and put messages from other addresses into a special folder which you browse through now and then, to check for good messages and adding the corresponding addresses to your white list.
==== [[|nospam]] ====
==== nospam ====
"nospam" is a script which can set up .forward and .procmailrc files so that certain e-mails will be stored in "bulk folders". \\ "nospam -i" gives some additional information, and "nospam -e" will enable this filtering. We will suppose that this has been done also for the following discussion of [[#whitelist|white lists]].
===== [[|Personal White List Against Spam]] =====
===== Personal White List Against Spam =====
//White lists// contain e-mail addresses which are always to be accepted as good. It is easy to implement this with "procmail": Supposing that "nospam -e" has been executed, so that basic procmail processing is set up, one can add the following fragment to ".procmailrc".
@ -91,7 +80,7 @@ A sample .whitelist may look like this:
All messages not coming from these three addresses would end up in the "quarantine" folder defined in the .procmailrc fragment.
===== [[|Using Procmail With a DNSBL]] =====
===== Using Procmail With a DNSBL =====
DNSBL stands for "DNS blacklist", and it is essentially a collection of IP addresses known to send out spam and other bad stuff. Two popular DNSBLs are [[http://www.spamcop.net|SpamCop]] and [[http://www.spamhaus.org|Spamhaus]]. Typically the mail server will check the source of incoming mail with the DNSBL before even accepting the message. SDF does not do this, but using Procmail to check a DNSBL at the user level is easy. In this tutorial we will use Spamhaus.
@ -143,7 +132,7 @@ This completes the Procmail recipe.
\\
===== [[|Use SDF SMTP Server Remotely via SSH]] =====
===== Use SDF SMTP Server Remotely via SSH =====
==== Introduction: ====
@ -251,4 +240,4 @@ Writing the PID to a file at the time of tunnel creation can simplify the ID pro
----
$Id: e-mail-advanced.html,v 1.17 2012/01/06 21:53:01 jgw Exp ruscorp $
$Id: e-mail-advanced.html,v 1.17 2012/01/06 21:53:01 jgw Exp ruscorp $

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@ -2,30 +2,20 @@
This tutorial covers the basics of accessing E-mail on SDF. Topics include command-line and remote access. Configuration of mail retrieval programs ("fetchmail", "getmail") and Mail User Agents (such as Mozilla Thunderbird) will also be covered.
==== Contents ====
- [[#intro|Introduction, and what this is //not//]]
- [[#reading|Reading E-mail on SDF]]
- [[#fetch|Fetching E-Mail with "fetchmail" or "getmail"]]
- [[#webmail|Accessing SDF E-mail via Webmail]]
- [[#guimua|Configuring Graphical Mail User Agents]]
- [[#ios|Configuring Mail in iOS (as a MetaARPA member)]]
----
===== [[|Introduction, and what you //will not// find here]] =====
===== Introduction, and what you //will not// find here =====
For basic info about e-mail (addresses, reader programs, file size, etc), please read the corresponding [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?faq?EMAIL|FAQ]] entry. Continue reading for more information about using E-mail services at SDF.
If you want to use a SDF's SMTP server to send mail, you must either log in and use one of the clients as described in [[http://sdf.org?tutorials/e-mail-beginners|the previous tutorial]], or register at an appropriate [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/index.cgi?faq?MEMBERS?01|membership level]] (VPM, VHOST, or MetaARPA) and [[http://sdf.org?tutorials/smtpauth|connect using SMTP AUTH]].
===== [[|Reading E-Mail on SDF]] =====
===== Reading E-Mail on SDF =====
Multiple mail clients are available to be used from the shell, including "pine" and "mutt".
===== [[|Fetching E-Mail with "fetchmail", "getmail" or "offlineimap"]] =====
===== Fetching E-Mail with "fetchmail", "getmail" or "offlineimap" =====
==== [[|Sample ".fetchmailrc"]] ====
==== Sample ".fetchmailrc" ====
You can use "fetchmail" to retrieve messages from your SDF account. The "fetchmail" example below is configured to use POP3 to retrieve E-mail. Note that this configuration does not use SSL. Also note that you will need to provide your user names and the path to procmail. You may omit the "pass" line to be prompted for your password. "fetchmail" can be run in //daemon// mode to retrieve mail at a desired interval: "fetchmail -d 900".
@ -36,7 +26,7 @@ You can use "fetchmail" to retrieve messages from your SDF account. The "fetchma
is "local.username" here
mda "/path/to/procmail -f- ~/.procmailrc";
==== [[|Sample ".getmail/sdf"]] ====
==== Sample ".getmail/sdf" ====
"wm.sdf.org" supports IMAPs in addition to POP3. This configuration //will// use SSL. A IMAP configuration (sans SSL) is commented out below. Use "getmail" to collect messages. Note that you will have to provide local and remote user names and you will be prompted for your password. Also note that this configuration uses procmail as a delivery agent.
@ -64,7 +54,7 @@ You could alternatively configure, for instance, a Maildir destination if you wo
type = Maildir
path = ~/Maildir/
==== [[|Sample ".offlineimaprc"]] ====
==== Sample ".offlineimaprc" ====
Another option to retrive E-mail is "offlineimap". The example below uses it to retrive messages with IMAP, using SSL for encryption, and storing them in Maildir format. The first option "accounts" contain a comma separated list of accounts to sync, "acc1" and "acc2" are given as an example, they are not needed if you are only syncing the sdf account. You may also need to adjust the value of "cert_fingerprint" from time to time.
@ -90,11 +80,11 @@ Another option to retrive E-mail is "offlineimap". The example below uses it to
remoteport = 993
remoteuser = isf
===== [[|Accessing SDF E-mail via Webmail ]] =====
===== Accessing SDF E-mail via Webmail =====
General users visit [[https://wm.sdf.org|wm.sdf.org]], MetaARPA members visit [[https://ma.sdf.org|ma.sdf.org]] if you've forwarded your mail to the MetaArray.
===== [[|Configuring Graphical Mail User Agents]] =====
===== Configuring Graphical Mail User Agents =====
==== Mozilla Thunderbird Configuration ====
@ -128,7 +118,7 @@ then click More Settings... » Outgoing Server » My outgoing server (SMTP) requ
Outlook will perform a connection test, and after it passes, you can exit the wizard and configuration program. When you start Outlook back up, the SDF mail account should appear. What a friggin headache.
==== [[|Configuring Mail in iOS (as a MetaARPA member)]] ====
==== Configuring Mail in iOS (as a MetaARPA member) ====
This can likely be done as an ARPA member, refer to system help or "bboard" for more information.
@ -143,4 +133,4 @@ Automatic setup will fail. Once prompted, enter the following server information
* User Name: "your sdf username"
* Password: "your sdf password"
$Id: e-mail-basics.html,v 1.19 2019/09/09 14:45:09 jawsh Exp $
$Id: e-mail-basics.html,v 1.19 2019/09/09 14:45:09 jawsh Exp $

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@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ Ways to read and send your SDF mail include the following:
You can always access your SDF mail account through any of several email programs installed on the server. All of these emails access your "mail spool", where your email is put by the mail server.
* //mutt// is available even to **Pre-validated Users**. Just type "mutt" at the command prompt. Here's a mutt tutorial
* Other programs, including //pine, alpine, mailx and rmail// are available to any **Validated User or ARPA or MetaARPA**. //Pine and Alpine// are related programs (Pine is older, Alpine is newer) that are both frequently considered to be the easiest shell email programs to use, with on-screen help and a menu interface. Enter "pine" or "alpine" respectively to run either of these. You can find more info on how to use them at [[http://sdf.org/?tutorials/e-mail-beginners|E-mail Beginners]].(For users at the **User** level, to learn about your limited allowed space and the significance of the mail spool, see the [[|difference between using mutt and alpine for Users vs ARPA]])==== Webmail //(Memberships: Validated User or ARPA or MetaARPA)// ====There are two webmail interfaces:
* Other programs, including //pine, alpine, mailx and rmail// are available to any **Validated User or ARPA or MetaARPA**. //Pine and Alpine// are related programs (Pine is older, Alpine is newer) that are both frequently considered to be the easiest shell email programs to use, with on-screen help and a menu interface. Enter "pine" or "alpine" respectively to run either of these. You can find more info on how to use them at [[http://sdf.org/?tutorials/e-mail-beginners|E-mail Beginners]].(For users at the **User** level, to learn about your limited allowed space and the significance of the mail spool, see the difference between using mutt and alpine for Users vs ARPA]])==== Webmail //(Memberships: Validated User or ARPA or MetaARPA)// ====There are two webmail interfaces:
* The old SquirrelMail, accessible for Validated Users or above, accessible from the "webmail" link at the top of the [[/|SDF home page]]
* Roundcube, a slicker experience, accessible by MetaARPA users from the link on the [[http://ma.sdf.org|metaaaray home page]]==== Client Email: POP3 and IMAP //(Memberships: User or ARPA or VPM or VHOST or MetaARPA)// ====This section and the next include a small distinction. While **User or ARPA can read mail on their own machines or devices**, these memberships **don't allow you to send email** from your account **through SDF**.**You can, however, use your ISP to send mail from your SDF account**//read//=== Reading Incoming email in your computer or device client if you are User or ARPA or VPM or VHOST or MetaARPA ===There are two ways to read your incoming email using a client mail program. You can choose either, except if you are using virtual mailboxes with a VPM membership, in which case your only option is POP3:
* **POP3** fetches a copy of your mail from the mail spool to your local machine, and optionally deletes it from the spool. POP3 works with most any email program, and you can keep the messages on the server to be able to access mail equally from multiple machine/mail programs. However if you are accessing a POP3 server from multiple machines, having to deal with synchronizing and multiple copies and deleting mail from the server can be a problem;

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@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ To unmount the filesystem leaving only the encrypted contents, we just need to d
Make sure to do this before logging out, otherwise the information could be left unprotected.
==== [[|Tips and Tricks]] ====
==== Tips and Tricks ====
As mentioned before, this method is intended for protection against off-line attacks. If you would like to avoid ever having the information on the clear on the remote server, and if you have access to EncFS at your local machine, you have at least two possibilities; one is to keep a local encrypted folder and make backups of that encrypted data to your sdf account, or you can use sshFS in conjunction with EncFS to write your encrypted data directly.

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@ -1,17 +1,5 @@
====== Adding custom error pages to your SDF website ======
----
===== Contents =====
* [[#intro|Introduction]]
* [[#why|Why create a custom error page?]]
* [[#how|How to implement your custom error page]]
\\
===== [[|Introduction]] =====
The HTTP protocol, which is used to retrieve documents (usually web pages) from the internet for display in a web browser, provides a number of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_HTTP_status_codes| standard error codes]] to indicate conditions or status relative to the process. The most widely known of these is the notorious code 404 - "File not found." This error may occur for a number of reasons, but most commonly it indicates a broken link. Perhaps there is a typographical error in your html, or maybe the document was moved to a new location without the needed changes made to the referring link. What happens at this point is that the web browser asking for the missing document receives a special error message web page instead. This page is usually provided by the server, but may in some instances be generated by the browser. The error page may be rather generic, or it may be customized for the originating site.
===== Why create a custom error page? =====
@ -23,7 +11,7 @@ Good question! Generally, the error pages provided by the server are adequate. O
* You may want to provide the viewer with additional information designed to help them resolve the issue themselves. This is useful if the problem is caused not by your site but by some mistake the user made in entering the URL, for example: [[http://www.microsoft.com/qrstuvwxyz|Here]] is an example of that.
* And let's face it - most error pages are pretty dull. The 404 page in particular can be frustrating. So much so, in fact, that people have even written spiteful [[http://www.ovff.org/pegasus/songs/404-not-found.html|songs]] about it!
===== [[|How to implement your custom error page]] =====
===== How to implement your custom error page =====
Now that you've decided you want to create a custom error page, you probably want to know how to do it. In fact, on SDF this turns out to be fairly easy. There are two basic steps involved:
@ -60,4 +48,4 @@ And that is pretty much all there is to it!
----
$Id: errorpage.html,v 1.5 2017/05/25 02:25:27 bradmac Exp $
$Id: errorpage.html,v 1.5 2017/05/25 02:25:27 bradmac Exp $

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@ -2,19 +2,6 @@
This tutorial discusses various ways to get data from and to a local (external) machine into and out of SDF.
==== Contents ====
- [[#intro|Introduction]]
- [[#ftp|FTP]] - File Transfer Protocol
- [[#scp|scp and sftp]] - secure copying and ftp
- [[#ssh|ssh and tar]] - securely copying directories
- [[#pub|Gopher and HTTP]] - using the internet for download
- [[#term|Terminal]] - direct copying via the terminal
- [[#email|E-mail]] - for small files only
- [[#gloss|Glossary]] - explications of terms
----
==== To Do ====
* x/y/zmodem transfers
@ -22,17 +9,17 @@ This tutorial discusses various ways to get data from and to a local (external)
----
===== [[|Introduction]] =====
===== Introduction =====
To transport data between SDF and your local (or any other external) machine, there are various ways. Their availability depends on your member level on SDF (see the [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?MEMBERS|FAQ, MEMBER section]] for more information), the external system, and their connection.
===== [[|FTP - File Transfer Protocol]] =====
===== FTP - File Transfer Protocol =====
[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_Transfer_Protocol|FTP (File Transfer Protocol)]] on SDF is available only for **downloading** public files. This is for security reasons. For upload and download of private files, [[#scp|scp and sftp]] must be used. \\ Note: ARPA membership allows for up-&amp;download via FTP; however, it is better to use scp or sftp if possible, as FTP is unencrypted, and your passwords also have to travel in the clear.
For download, point your FTP program to sdf.org and do anonymous FTP to read data (username "anonymous", password "//yourlogin//@sdf.org", or another of your e-mail addresses).
===== [[|scp and sftp]] - secure copying and ftp =====
===== scp and sftp]] - secure copying and ftp =====
scp and sftp are secure ways to transfer data between computers, based on ssh (secure shell). If you've only worked with ftp before, you'll be surprised at the ease and benefits to using scp.
@ -57,7 +44,7 @@ On SDF, you need to have ARPA membership to be able to use them. Check the manpa
On Windows machines, you can use the [[#putty|PuTTY programs]].
===== [[|ssh and tar]] - securely copying directories =====
===== ssh and tar]] - securely copying directories =====
The tar archiving tool can be used with ssh to quickly duplicate whole directory trees:
@ -65,7 +52,7 @@ The tar archiving tool can be used with ssh to quickly duplicate whole directory
Note: this trick requires compatible versions of tar on the local and remote systems
===== [[|Gopher and HTTP - using the internet for download]] =====
===== Gopher and HTTP - using the internet for download =====
To get data out of SDF on a local machine, you can of course publish them on your gopher- or web-site. Please check the [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?GOPHER|FAQ, GOPHER section]] and the [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?tutorials/building_a_website| website tutorial]] for information how to set up these sites.
@ -73,21 +60,21 @@ Please note that HTTP traffic is bandwidth limited depending on your membership
To prevent access by everybody, see the FAQ entry about [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?WEB?04|password protection]] of websites.
===== [[|Terminal - direct copying via the terminal]] =====
===== Terminal - direct copying via the terminal =====
For transferring small amount of text data (scripts, tables, source code snippets), think about copy/paste directly in the terminal! If you are [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?MEMBERS?01|MetaARPA]], then you can use "screen" and its built-in copy facility to transfer data between different screens.
To append text input in the terminal to a file on SDF, you can open the file on SDF in your favourite [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?BASICS?09|text editor]]. Or simply use the command "cat &gt;&gt;//file//", send the data to the terminal (via the paste function), and finish with a single line containing only ^D (CTRL-D) - to do that in the terminal, hit RETURN, CTRL-D, RETURN; this will close the standard input the "cat" was reading from.
===== [[|E-mail - for small files only]] =====
===== E-mail - for small files only =====
If you have to transfer binary data and cannot use scp (because you're not [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?MEMBERS?01|ARPA]], which is a pity), then you may need to use file transfer via e-mail. For this, you attach the data you want to get into SDF to a message which you send to your address on SDF (//yourlogin//@sdf.org). On SDF, you read the message and save the attachment where you need the data (e.g, in your home directory, from where you can move them using "mv").
This may not work for large attachments, as the e-mail system (everywhere!) was not intended for file transfer. If you have to regularly transfer large files, you should seriously consider becoming ARPA!
===== [[|Glossary]] =====
===== Glossary =====
ARPA and MetaARPAThese are additional [[http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?MEMBERS?01|membership]] levels on SDF which allow for more commands and provide more space and the good feeling of supporting [[http://sdf.org|SDF]]!downloadto get data //from SDF// to your local machine; imagine SDF sitting somewhere uphill so that everybody can see it - then you get the data //down// from SDF[[http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty|PuTTY]]This is a software suite for Windows machines for ssh and scp connections.[[http://sdf.org|SDF]]Super Dimensional Fortress - if you don't know what that is, then why are you reading this..? //wink//terminalThe equipment used to connect to a computer in text mode (for a more accurate definition see the corresponding [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_terminal|Wikipedia entry]]), or in a narrower context the window which gives access to a SDF in text mode. If you are using Windows, it may be a telnet window (or better use PuTTY for secure access via ssh - that's even possible without being ARPA), or on a Linux machine an xterm window.uploadto get data //to SDF// from your local machine; see //download//
----
$Id: filetransfer.html,v 1.17 2020/01/01 22:27:19 niro Exp $
$Id: filetransfer.html,v 1.17 2020/01/01 22:27:19 niro Exp $

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@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ While the UNIX shell may seem a bit daunting and cold with cryptic two-letter co
----
===== [[|Using Manpages]] =====
===== Using Manpages =====
==== The Definitive Guide to RTFMing ====

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@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
[[|... unix.]][[node4.html#tex2html4|<sup>3.1</sup>]]Gnu stands for Gnu's Not Unix, but I say it is.
... unix.]][[node4.html#tex2html4|<sup>3.1</sup>]]Gnu stands for Gnu's Not Unix, but I say it is.
.
.
@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
.
.
[[|... file.]][[node5.html#tex2html6|<sup>4.1</sup>]]The link count is intimately related to the structure of the unix file system. There's no need to worry about it for now.
... file.]][[node5.html#tex2html6|<sup>4.1</sup>]]The link count is intimately related to the structure of the unix file system. There's no need to worry about it for now.
.
.
@ -64,7 +64,7 @@
.
.
[[|... myself.]][[node6.html#tex2html13|<sup>5.1</sup>]]I infer from the book's title that Eric Raymond would agree with me that ``unix'' is a functional description of a class of operating systems, not a particular implementation.
... myself.]][[node6.html#tex2html13|<sup>5.1</sup>]]I infer from the book's title that Eric Raymond would agree with me that ``unix'' is a functional description of a class of operating systems, not a particular implementation.
.
.
@ -97,7 +97,7 @@
.
.
[[|... immediately.]][[node7.html#tex2html18|<sup>6.1</sup>]]``Immediately'' is a relative term. Lag might prevent "com" from reacting instantly, but it will react without you pressing any other keys.
... immediately.]][[node7.html#tex2html18|<sup>6.1</sup>]]``Immediately'' is a relative term. Lag might prevent "com" from reacting instantly, but it will react without you pressing any other keys.
.
.
@ -130,7 +130,7 @@
.
.
[[|..."com".]][[node7.html#tex2html19|<sup>6.2</sup>]]Some people keep track of the longest time a new user has required to exit from "com". I have heard that the record is over 23 minutes.
..."com".]][[node7.html#tex2html19|<sup>6.2</sup>]]Some people keep track of the longest time a new user has required to exit from "com". I have heard that the record is over 23 minutes.
.
.
@ -163,7 +163,7 @@
.
.
[[|... networking]][[node9.html#tex2html21|<sup>8.1</sup>]]Lookup //socket//, //connect//, //listen//, &amp; //accept// in the man.
... networking]][[node9.html#tex2html21|<sup>8.1</sup>]]Lookup //socket//, //connect//, //listen//, &amp; //accept// in the man.
.
.

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@ -2,11 +2,11 @@
[[#Introduction|Introduction]][[#Creating a New Tutorial|Creating a New Tutorial]][[#Editing or modifying a tutorial|Editing or modifying a tutorial]][[#Tips|HTML format guidelines]][[#Template|Template]][[#Title|Title]][[#Header|Header]][[#Body|Body]][[#Note|Note]][[#Code|Code]][[#Reference|Reference]][[#Tables|Tables]][[#List|List]][[#Links|Links]][[#Using images|Using images]][[#Using references|Using references]][[#Example|Example]]
[[|Introduction]]
Introduction]]
This tutorial has been introduced to help members to more easily contribute to \\ the [[http://sdf.org/?tutorials|SDF Tutorials]] project. The SDF Tutorials utilize simple RCS Revision Control System. \\ The only downside is initially finding the folder location and reading the lengthy \\ README.TXT. By using this tutorial, you should be able to get started much quicker! \\ Please note, this tutorial is not meant to replace the main README.TXT and reading the main \\ README.TXT will provide a better understanding. More in-depth instructions for editing SDF \\ Tutorials can be found within the [[/tutorials/README.TXT|README.TXT]] (which can also be found on the shell at \\ /sys/html/tutorials/README.TXT).\\
==== [[|Creating a New Tutorial]] ====
==== Creating a New Tutorial ====
Change your current directory to the tutorials directory.
@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ Check the file in and unlock it so everyone can edit it.
\\ Check to make sure file permissions are retained by RCS on check-out (co).\\ If they are not, and the permissions only show user readable still, \\ then chmod a+r RCS/filename.html,v directly so that the file can be read by readers of the webpage.\\ Next, edit the main index.html page to include the newly created file.\\
==== [[|Editing or modifying a tutorial]] ====
==== Editing or modifying a tutorial ====
Change your current directory to the tutorials directory.
@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ Check the file in and unlock it so everyone can edit it.
\\ ci -u new_filename.html
==== [[|HTML format guidelines]] ====
==== HTML format guidelines ====
Whether after issuing the co command or simply editing a file within /sys/html/tutorials, \\ modifications can be viewed in real time with a browser over the internet. But remember, \\ changes will only be saved if you use co/ci properly! The tutorial server script generates \\ the page header and footer, so you only need to supply the content of the tutorial you plan to \\ post and the RCS $Id$ tag. You can use the following as a template:\\

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@ -8,12 +8,12 @@ This initiative is a voluntary project involving SDF users who wish to\\ explor
* [[#laptop|Going 100% Laptop]] - Charge up, Unplug, Deplete
* [[#thinclient|Thin Client Computing]] - WYSE or DIY
* [[#thumb|Gumstix/Thumbnail Systems]] - Solid State Computing
* More .. === [[|5 Steps - To a Greener You]] ===
* More .. === 5 Steps - To a Greener You ===
* //STEP 1:// Paint your computer green
* //STEP 2:// Take a digital photo, it lasts longer
* //STEP 3:// Paint yourself green
* //STEP 4:// Smirk at yourself in the mirror until it looks cool
* //STEP 5:// Take a digital photo, upload to google (It lasts longer) === [[|Going 100% Laptop - Charge up, Unplug, Deplete]] ===
* ... === [[|Thin Client Computing - WYSE or DIY]] ===
* ... === [[|Gumstix/Thumbnail Systems - Solid State Computing]] ===
* //STEP 5:// Take a digital photo, upload to google (It lasts longer) === Going 100% Laptop - Charge up, Unplug, Deplete ===
* ... === Thin Client Computing - WYSE or DIY ===
* ... === Gumstix/Thumbnail Systems - Solid State Computing ===
* ... $Id: greencomputing.html,v 1.5 2007/12/26 17:58:13 smj Exp $

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@ -1,22 +1,5 @@
====== .htaccess recipes ======
Contents
- [[#intro|Introduction]]
- [[#recipes|Recipes]]
- [[#redir-error|Redirect to a custom error page]]
- [[#deny-dir|Deny directory listing]]
- [[#addtype|Add (or force) MIME-type]]
- [[#no-ext|Access files without specifying the extension
* [[#add-ext|I want to access files without extension, but my (cgi|pl|php) is not found]]]]
- [[#remove-handler|Serve .pl .php .cgi etc. as plain text files]]
- [[#download|Force a download with a specific filename]]
- [[#charset|Specify a default character encoding]]
- [[#password|Password protect your directories]]
- [[#forcessl|Force visitors to use SSL/HTTPS]]
===== Introduction =====
.htaccess is the default file used by the [[http://httpd.apache.org/|Apache HTTP server]] (and others) in order to allow dynamic configuration. It's a plain text file that uses the same syntax present in the main configuration files (e.g., httpd.conf). It can contain a subset of Apache directives. The size of this subset depends on wheter the directives can be overridden or not (and this is present in the server configuration). In the Apache documentation you can see if a directive can be placed in a .htaccess file by checking that in the Context: line appears .htaccess. For instace, it's possible for the [[http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#forcetype|ForceType]] directive, but it's not for the [[http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/core.html#errorlog|ErrorLog]] directive. file.
The configuration directives placed in a .htaccess file will take effect immediately when a document, located in the directory where the .htaccess file is located and all subdirectories, is accessed. The server will also search for .htaccess files in all the parent directories. If there is a conflicting configuration directive, the server will apply the one that is in the .htaccess file closer to the requested resource. For instance, suppose that X and Y are two generic options. If you have "Options +X -Y" in $HOME/html/.htaccess and "Options -X" in $HOME/html/files/test/.htaccess, when you access a file in http://YOURUSERNAME.freeshell.org/files/test/ (and all subdirectories, unless you have another .htaccess file that reverts the configuration) options X and Y will be disabled, but if you access a file in http://YOURUSERNAME.freeshell.org/files/ (and above) option X will be enabled and option Y disabled.
@ -105,7 +88,7 @@ only .cn.html files will have UTF-8 as the default encoding. (The order of the l
This is a FAQ: http://sdf.org/index.cgi?faq?WEB?04
==== [[|Force visitors to use SSL/HTTPS]] ====
==== Force visitors to use SSL/HTTPS ====
As SDF expands its support of [[https://letsencrypt.org/|Let's Encrypt]], offering free SSL certificates, you may wish to require all visitors of your site to use HTTPS. (This also may improve your search engine ranking, and many Web browsers will soon flag non-SSL sites as "Not Secure.") Adding this to the .htaccess file in your site's root directory will redirect your non-HTTPS visitors accordingly:
@ -115,4 +98,4 @@ As SDF expands its support of [[https://letsencrypt.org/|Let's Encrypt]], offeri
If this suddenly renders your whole site inaccessible, be sure the permissions on the .htaccess file itself are suitable (chmod 644, or run "mkhomepg -p") -- the default umask will not allow the Web server itself to read your .htaccess file.
$Id: htaccess.html,v 1.3 2018/07/30 15:30:01 dave Exp $
$Id: htaccess.html,v 1.3 2018/07/30 15:30:01 dave Exp $

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@ -1,38 +1,18 @@
====== Blogging with Jekyll ======
----
===== Contents =====
* [[#introduction|Introduction]]
* [[#advantages|Advantages to using Jekyll]]
* [[#gettingstarted|Getting started]]
* [[#liquid|Using the Liquid templating language]]
* [[#output|Output markup]]
* [[#tag|Tag markup]]
* [[#templates|Creating templates]]
* [[#defaulttemplate|Default template]]
* [[#posttemplate|Post template]]
* [[#othertemplates|Other templates]]
* [[#index|Creating the index page]]
* [[#post|Writing a post]]
* [[#build|Building the site]]
===== [[|Introduction]] =====
From the [[http://wiki.github.com/mojombo/jekyll|Jekyll wiki]]:
> Jekyll is a simple, blog aware, static site generator. It takes a template directory (representing the raw form of a website), runs it through Textile or Markdown and Liquid converters, and spits out a complete, static website suitable for serving with Apache or your favorite web server.
Jekyll is installed on SDF, making it a particularly useful tool for MOTD users but also for any user wishing to host a weblog on his SDF webspace.
==== [[|Advantages to using Jekyll]] ====
==== Advantages to using Jekyll ====
* **No databases required.** Jekyll converts marked up text files to HTML files.
* **No dynamic pages.** With Jekyll your site will be composed solely of static HTML files. No CGI is necessary, reducing the load on SDF servers.
* **Ease and simplicity of use.** Using Jekyll does not require any programming knowledge, and the learning curve is very shallow. At the same time, the user does not sacrifice any control to wizards and GUIs.
===== [[|Getting started]] =====
===== Getting started =====
Create a source directory with the following structure:
@ -53,45 +33,45 @@ MOTD users may wish to put instead:
Replace "/absolute/path/to" with the path to your home directory. Type "echo $HOME" in the shell if you're unsure.
===== [[|Using the Liquid templating engine]] =====
===== Using the Liquid templating engine =====
Liquid is a templating engine with which all files ending in ".html" will be processed. These files can have normal HTML that will be interpreted literally. Liquid only cares about text in between "{{" and " }}" and in between "{%" and "%}". The former denotes output markup, meaning that whatever is placed within the brackets can produce text. The latter denotes tag markup, which does not produce text but is used for comments, conditional statements, and loops.
==== [[|Output markup]] ====
==== Output markup ====
Output markup is fairly simple. The basic format is "{{ variable | filter }}". The variables are typically built into Jekyll, so one usually doesn't have to worry about declaring them. "site " is a variable that stores site-wide information in sub-variables. For example, "site.posts" is a list of all the site's posts. Each post has its own "post" variable, which includes information such as "post.title", "post.url", and "post.date" Another important variable is "content", which is used in templates to denote where the content will be inserted. A complete list of template data can be found [[http://wiki.github.com/mojombo/jekyll/template-data|here]]. Filters are used to manipulate theoutput of variables. When a filter is not specified ("{{ variable }}"), the variable is simply printed. Liquid has a bunch of built-in filters that can be found, along with a whole summary of using Liquid, [[http://wiki.github.com/tobi/liquid/liquid-for-designers|here]]. Jekyll also has some of its own filters, such as "number_of_words" and "array_to_sentence_string", which turns an array variable into a list of words seperated by commas and an "and." The complete list can be found [[http://wiki.github.com/mojombo/jekyll/liquid-extensions| here]], along with Jekyll's extra tags.
==== [[|Tag markup]] ====
==== Tag markup ====
The most basic tag is "{% comment %}" / "{% endcomment %} ". Anything in between those tags is ignored. Conditional statements are possible with "{% if condition %}" / "{% endif %}". For loops are especially useful with Jekyll. Use them with "{% for item in array %}" / "{% endfor %}".
===== [[|Creating templates]] =====
===== Creating templates =====
Let's actually get started with the blog. The first thing we need are the templates.
==== [[|Default template]] ====
==== Default template ====
Remember that the templates are stored in the "_layouts/" folder and that the default template is named "default.html". Here we can put all of the HTML headers once and be done with them. This includes any meta information, a link to a stylesheet, a link to a feed, etc. For the title, we can use "&lt;title&gt;{{ page.title }}&lt;/title&gt;". This way the title for every page will automatically get inserted. Once all of the headers are done, we can add some layout that will get used on every page. Finally, "{{ content }}" must go where dynamic content of the site will be inserted.
==== [[|Post template]] ====
==== Post template ====
"post.html" determines the layout for post pages. Here we first encounter YAML front matter. YAML stands for "YAML Ain't a Markup Language," Any YAML content is placed between "---" and "---" (each on their own line) at the beginning of a document. In this front matter we can set variables in the format, "variable: value". The only variable we need to set for the post template is "layout: default". This tells Jekyll to insert this template into "{{ content }}" in the default layout. We'll also want to add a "{{ content }}" to the post template. This is where the actual post will get inserted. We also might want to add somethings like "{{ page.title }}" and "{{ page.date | date: "%A %d %B %Y" }}", which will format the post's date as "Weekday Day Month Year".
==== [[|Other templates]] ====
==== Other templates ====
Finally, once getting the hang of creating template, one can add new ones, such as "static.html" for static pages without a date.
===== [[|Creating the index page]] =====
===== Creating the index page =====
The web site will of course need an index page, "index.html". As usual, this will get interpreted by Liquid. But first we'll need to add the front matter. The layout should probably be default again. If any of the layouts use "{{ page.title }}", we can define the title of the home page now with "title: This Is My Title". After the YAML front matter, we'll probably want a list of the posts. This can be done with a for loop: "{% for post in site.posts %}". Format the HTML content inside the loop in any way, maybe using "{{ post.date }}" and "{{ post.title }}".
===== [[|Writing a post]] =====
===== Writing a post =====
We have some different choices for the markup language for the posts, but we'll use Textile because it works just fine. Remember to name the file "YYYY-MM-DD-title-of-post.textile" and to put it in the "_posts/" directory. Again we'll start with the front matter. This time, we'll want "layout: post", so that the output of the post will get inserted at "{{ content }}" in the post template. If "{{ page.title }}" was used anywhere else, the title must be declared now. Whatever comes after the YAML content must be in the Textile format, which is very easy to learn. A good reference can be found [[http://redcloth.org/hobix.com/textile/|here]].
One thing to watch out for is that any newline is interpreted as a new paragraph, so don't hit "return" unless you mean it.
===== [[|Building the site]] =====
===== Building the site =====
Once we have our templates, index, and posts done, we can finally build the site. To do so, use the command "jekyll" in your source directory to generate the static HTML site, followed by "mkhomepg -p" to set the proper permissions on any newly-created files.
@ -99,4 +79,4 @@ Congratulations, you now have a Jekyll-powered blog. All of this may have seemed
----
$Id: jekyll.html,v 1.5 2010/07/24 14:30:14 nerfling Exp $
$Id: jekyll.html,v 1.5 2010/07/24 14:30:14 nerfling Exp $

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@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
====== [[index.html|SDF ARC]] ======
====== [[index.html|SDF ARC ======
===== SDF.ORG's Amateur Radio Club =====

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@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
[[node2.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node2.html|1. To Do]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]]\\ \\ \\
===== [[| Contents]] =====
===== Contents =====
* [[node2.html|1. To Do]]
* [[node3.html|2. Introduction]]

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@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
[[node11.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node9.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node11.html|Bibliography]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node9.html|8. Hacking]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\
====== [[| 9. Meta]] ======
====== 9. Meta ======
This document is available online in several formats:

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@ -1,12 +1,12 @@
{{../img/latex2html/next_g.png?37x24|next}} [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node10.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node10.html|9. Meta]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\
===== [[| Bibliography]] =====
===== Bibliography =====
[[|aDMR88]] Brian W. Kernighan - Dennis M. Ritchie. \\ //The C Programming Language//. \\ Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 1988. \\ ISBN 0-13-110362-8.
aDMR88]] Brian W. Kernighan - Dennis M. Ritchie. \\ //The C Programming Language//. \\ Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 1988. \\ ISBN 0-13-110362-8.
[[|Hob77]] Hobbit. \\ Cifs: Common insecurities fail scrutiny. \\ January 1977. \\ http://www.ussrback.com/docs/cifs.txt or http://www.undergroundnews.com/files/texts/underground/hacking/cifs.html.
Hob77]] Hobbit. \\ Cifs: Common insecurities fail scrutiny. \\ January 1977. \\ http://www.ussrback.com/docs/cifs.txt or http://www.undergroundnews.com/files/texts/underground/hacking/cifs.html.
[[|Pla92]] P. J. Plauger. \\ //The Standard C Library//. \\ Prentice Hall, 1992. \\ ISBN 0-13-131509-9.
Pla92]] P. J. Plauger. \\ //The Standard C Library//. \\ Prentice Hall, 1992. \\ ISBN 0-13-131509-9.
\\

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@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
[[node3.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node3.html|2. Introduction]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node1.html|Contents]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\
====== [[| 1. To Do]] ======
====== 1. To Do ======
How to make a web site on SDF. Probably mention the "mkhomepg" (or whatever it's called) command &amp; give pointers to other articles about HTML &amp; CGI.

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@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
[[node4.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node2.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node4.html|3. What is Unix?]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node2.html|1. To Do]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\ [[|**Subsections**]]
[[node4.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node2.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node4.html|3. What is Unix?]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node2.html|1. To Do]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\ **Subsections**]]
* [[#SECTION00310000000000000000|2.1 What to read first]]
----
====== [[| 2. Introduction]] ======
====== 2. Introduction ======
This is for people who are new to unix, especially people who are new to unix &amp; new to [[http://sdf.lonestar.org/|Super Dimension Fortress]] (SDF), a public access unix system.
@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ I sometimes hang out in the chat rooms on SDF, &amp; almost every day someone en
So I'm answering that question here, once. If all goes well, when someone enters a chat room &amp; asks how to start learning about unix, someone can point them to this article.
====== [[| 2.1 What to read first]] ======
====== 2.1 What to read first ======
If you already know what unix is, or if you don't but you also don't enjoy reading about petty controversies about a definition, skip the ``What is Unix'' chapter &amp; start reading Chapter [[node5.html#basics|4]] ``Some Basic Commands''.

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@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
[[node5.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node3.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node5.html|4. Some Basic Commands]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node3.html|2. Introduction]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\ [[|**Subsections**]]
[[node5.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node3.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node5.html|4. Some Basic Commands]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node3.html|2. Introduction]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\ **Subsections**]]
* [[#SECTION00410000000000000000|3.1 Short Answer]]
* [[#SECTION00420000000000000000|3.2 Long Answer]]
@ -11,17 +11,17 @@
What is unix? That's a loaded question.
====== [[| 3.1 Short Answer]] ======
====== 3.1 Short Answer ======
The short answer is ``Unix is an operating system''. So is Gnu/Linux, which is often just called Linux. So are HP/UX, AIX, NeXT STEP (now called Apple Macintosh OS 10), &amp; Microthought Winders (often called many uncomplimentary things).
If this short answer is enough for you, congratulations on knowing the value of keeping things simple. Now skip ahead to Chapter [[node5.html#basics|4]] ``Some Basic Commands''.
====== [[| 3.2 Long Answer]] ======
====== 3.2 Long Answer ======
The long answer is ``It depends on who you ask''.
===== [[| 3.2.1 My Opinion]] =====
===== 3.2.1 My Opinion =====
In my opinion, unix is a description of the function of an operating system. I even say that unix is an Application Programmer's Interface (API). Any operating system which implements the unix API is a unix; it's an implementation of unix. Gnu/Linux is a unix.[[footnode.html#foot51|<sup>3.1</sup>]] Gnu/Linux is often called Linux, but strictly speaking, Linux is a unix kernel, but not a whole unix operating system. There are many other implementations of unix. I can name original BSD, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, HP/UX, AIX, Minix, Apple Macintosh OS 10, NeXT STEP, QNX, &amp; Lynx. There are probably others.
@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ Now for some legal bullshit. ``UNIX'' is a trademark of [[http://www.opengroup.o
Anyway, I say that if an operating system behaves like unix, then it's a unix, though not necessarily a UNIX{{img1.png?31x18|$^{(tm)}$}}.
===== [[| 3.2.2 Another Opinion]] =====
===== 3.2.2 Another Opinion =====
Another opinion, which I don't share, is that Unix is a particular product. HP/UX is another. AIX is another. Gnu/Linux is another. You get the idea.

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[[node6.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node4.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node6.html|5. Learning More]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node4.html|3. What is Unix?]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\ [[|**Subsections**]]
[[node6.html| {{../img/latex2html/next.png?37x24|next}}]] [[unx.html| {{../img/latex2html/up.png?26x24|up}}]] [[node4.html| {{../img/latex2html/prev.png?63x24|previous}}]] [[node1.html| {{../img/latex2html/contents.png?65x24|contents}}]] [[../|{{../img/latex2html/root.png|root}} ]]\\ ** Next:** [[node6.html|5. Learning More]] ** Up:** [[unx.html|Introduction to Unix &amp;]] ** Previous:** [[node4.html|3. What is Unix?]]   ** [[node1.html|Contents]]**\\ \\ **Subsections**]]
* [[#SECTION00510000000000000000|4.1 The Command Line Shell]]
* [[#SECTION00520000000000000000|4.2 Listing Files]]
@ -21,7 +21,7 @@
====== \\ 4. Some Basic Commands ======
====== [[| 4.1 The Command Line Shell]] ======
====== 4.1 The Command Line Shell ======
When you login to a unix system, you'll be on a command line. It'll have a prompt like ``"$"'' or ``"bash-2.04$ "'' or maybe ``"%"''. There are other variations.
@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ The important thing about a shell is that most of the things you type to it are
Enough about shells for now.
====== [[| 4.2 Listing Files]] ======
====== 4.2 Listing Files ======
On unix, the //ls// program gives you lists of files.
@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ Here's an exercise: Type ``"echo *"'' on the command line, like this:
Now go figure out why or how //echo// differs from //ls//.
====== [[| 4.3 Moving Around the File System]] ======
====== 4.3 Moving Around the File System ======
All unix systems have a file system whose root directory is "/". Your home directory is somewhere inside a directory in the file system. Maybe your home directory is "/home/you" or "/usr/hm0/you" or whatever. The details depend on the unix. To learn your home directory, type ``"echo $HOME"'', like this:
@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ To change your current working directory, use the //cd// command. Give it the na
/tmp
bash-2.04$
====== [[| 4.4 The VI Cursor Commands]] ======
====== 4.4 The VI Cursor Commands ======
[[node5.html#editors|vi]] is an editor, but its cursor-movement commands are often used by other programs. Figure [[node5.html#fig-vi-commands|4.1]] shows //vi//'s cursor-movement commands.
@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ Some programs besides //vi// which use the //vi// cursor-movement commands inclu
* "/usr/games/worm", an old game &amp; an excellent way to learn the //vi// commands
* VIPER, a //vi//-emulator for [[node5.html#editors|emacs]]
====== [[| 4.5 E-mail]] ======
====== 4.5 E-mail ======
Most unix systems give you multiple options for how to read your e-mail.
@ -145,27 +145,27 @@ When you are viewing the body of a message, you can type ``"q"'' to quit that vi
In the list of messages, the ``"j"'' key moves the cursor down &amp; selects that message. The ``"k"'' key moves the cursor up &amp; selects that message. The ``"q"'' key exits //mutt//.
===== [[| 4.5.2 Graphical E-mail Readers]] =====
===== 4.5.2 Graphical E-mail Readers =====
If you want to read your e-mail with a graphical e-mail reader, maybe the one in your web browser, you'll need a more elaborate setup. You'll need to instruct your mail client to use your unix account for sending &amp; receiving messages. It sends messages via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). It downloads messages that you receive via the Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3). Of course, the unix system where you have your account must be configured to allow these operations. You'll need to refer to the documentation for that computer system to do all this, but it can be done if the unix system allows it.
===== [[| 4.5.3 My Own E-mail]] =====
===== 4.5.3 My Own E-mail =====
For the record, I usually use the //rmail// mode in Gnu Emacs for reading &amp; sending e-mail.
====== [[| 4.6 Viewing Files]] ======
====== 4.6 Viewing Files ======
If you have a file you want to read, use the //less// program to read it. For example, if the file is called "README" &amp; is in your current directory, type ``"less README"''. If that gets you a ``command not found'' error, try ``"more README"''.
You'll see the first part of the file on your screen. (If it's a really short file, you'll see all of it on your screen.) To see the next screen-full, type the Space bar. To see the previous screen-full, type the ``"b"'' key. To quit viewing the file &amp; return to the command line, type the ``"q"'' key.
====== [[| 4.7 Surf the Web]] ======
====== 4.7 Surf the Web ======
A good web browser to use on a text-only command line is //lynx//. You can give it an URL to read on the command line, like this: ``"lynx http://lisp-p.org/"'' or ``"lynx http://google.com/"''. Use the Space bar to page down, the ``"b"'' key to page up, the arrow keys to select hyperlinks, &amp; the Return or Enter key to follow a hyperlink. Use the ``"q"'' key to quit.
Unless the unix system where you have an account is very trusting, you probably cannot run a graphical web browser on it. Technically it can be done using the graphical system called X (which is common on unices), setting permissions with the //xhost// program, &amp; setting your DISPLAY environment variable, but it usually is not allowed on a public access unix.
====== [[| 4.8 Upload &amp; Download]] ======
====== 4.8 Upload &amp; Download ======
===== \\ 4.8.1 FTP =====
@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ For //rcp// to work, you must first configure the ".rhosts" files in your accoun
For example, if I want to copy "myfile.cpio.bz2" on the local computer into the "tmp" directory in my account on a computer called "overthere", I would run this: ``"rcp myfile.cpio.bz2 overthere:tmp/"''. The //rcp// program will copy the file; it won't ask me for my password.
===== [[| 4.8.4 When FTP Doesn't Work]] =====
===== 4.8.4 When FTP Doesn't Work =====
If you don't have FTP on your home computer, you can transfer files via e-mail.