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Urchin is a portable shell program that runs a directory of Unix-style programs and produces pretty output. It is normally used for testing shell programs, where each test case corresponds to a single file in the directory that Urchin runs.
Urchin is called "Urchin" because sea urchins have shells called "tests".
Try it out
Urchin's tests are written in Urchin, so you can run them to see what Urchin is like. Clone the repository
git clone https://git.sdf.org/tlevine/urchin
Run the tests
cd urchin ./urchin tests
Urchin depends on the following programs.
Vanilla installations of modern BSD and GNU systems usually include all of these programs.
Urchin is contained in a single file, so you can install it by copying it to a
directory in your
PATH. For example, you can run the following as root.
cd /usr/local/bin wget https://git.sdf.org/tlevine/urchin/raw/branch/master/urchin chmod +x urchin
Urchin can be installed with npm too.
npm install -g urchin
Now you can run it.
urchin <test directory>
urchin -h to get command-line help.
Make a root directory for your tests. Inside it, put executable files that
0 on success and something else on fail. Non-executable files and hidden
files (dotfiles) are ignored, so you can store fixtures right next to your
tests. Run urchin from inside the tests directory.
Urchin only cares about the exit status, so you can actually write your tests in any language, not just shell.
More about writing tests
Tests are organized recursively in directories, where the names of the files and directories have special meanings.
tests/ setup setup_dir bar/ setup test_that_something_works teardown baz/ jack-in-the-box/ setup test_that_something_works teardown cat-in-the-box/ fixtures/ thingy.pdf test_thingy teardown
Directories are processed in a depth-first order. When a particular directory
setup_dir is sourced before everything else in the directory,
teardown_dir is sourced after everything else in
setup file, if it exists, is sourced right before each test
file within the particular directory is run, and the
teardown file is
sourced right after.
Files are only run if they are executable, and files beginning with
ignored. Thus, fixtures and libraries can be included sloppily within the test
directory tree. The test passes if the file exits 0; otherwise, it fails.
urchin looks for files within a directory in the following manner,
for file in *; do do_something_with_test_file $file done
so files are run in whatever order
* produces. The order is
configured in your environment, at least in
Other systems may ignore the locales configured in the environment and
always produce ASCIIbetical order.
Results are always printed in ASCIIbetical order, regardless of what order the tests ran in.
Below you can see how the locale can affect the order.
$ printf '!c\n@a\n~b\n' | LC_COLLATE=C sort !c @a ~b $ printf '!c\n@a\n~b\n' | LC_COLLATE=en_US.UTF-8 sort @a ~b !c $ printf '!c\n@a\n~b\n' | sort -d @a ~b !c
Writing cross-shell compatibility tests for testing shell code
While you could write your test scripts to explicitly invoke the functionality to test with various shells, Urchin facilitates a more flexible approach.
The specific approach depends on your test scenario:
- (a) Your test scripts invoke scripts containing portable shell code.
- (b) Your scripts source scripts containing portable shell code.
(a) Cross-shell tests with test scripts that invoke shell scripts
Urchin sets the
TEST_SHELL environment variable so that you may change the
shell with which your tests call other shell programs. To run your test
scripts in multiple shells you must call
$TEST_SHELL in your tests and then
run urchin with the appropriate option.
In your test scripts, invoke the shell scripts to test via the shell
specified in environment variable
TEST_SHELL rather than directly;
$TEST_SHELL ../foo bar (rather than just
Urchin runs tests in multiple different shells by default; Urchin has a list of default shells, and the following command will run your tests in all of those shells that Urchin detects.
You can override the default list of shells with the
urchin -s sh -s ksh ./tests
You can also
TEST_SHELL has no value, Urchin defines it as
/bin/sh, so the test
scripts can rely on
$TEST_SHELL always containing a value when Urchin runs
That said, we still recommand that you account for the possibility that
$TEST_SHELL does not contain a value so that you may run your test scripts
without Urchin. Supporting this case is very simple; when you invoke scripts
that happen to be in the current directory, be sure to use the prefix
$TEST_SHELL ./baz rather than
(b) Cross-shell tests with test scripts that source shell scripts
If you source shell code in your test scripts, it is the test scripts themselves that must be run with the shell specified.
Urchin supports the
-s <shell> option, which instructs
Urchin to invoke the test scripts with the specified shell; e.g.,
(In addition, Urchin sets environment variable
TEST_SHELL to the specified
Note that only test scripts that either have no shebang line at all or
have shebang line
#!/bin/sh are invoked with the specified shell.
This allows non-shell test scripts or test scripts for other languages
or for specific shells to coexist with those whose invocation should be
On shell programming