This group of filters serves no utilitarian purpose but is nonetheless quite amusing and hence should be maintained for posterity.
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% texinfo.tex -- TeX macros to handle Texinfo files.
% Load plain if necessary, i.e., if running under initex.
\expandafter\ifx\csname fmtname\endcsname\relax\input plain\fi
% Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995,
% 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software
% Foundation, Inc.
% This texinfo.tex file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
% modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
% published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at
% your option) any later version.
% This texinfo.tex file is distributed in the hope that it will be
% useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty
% General Public License for more details.
% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
% along with this texinfo.tex file; see the file COPYING. If not, write
% to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
% Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
% As a special exception, when this file is read by TeX when processing
% a Texinfo source document, you may use the result without
% restriction. (This has been our intent since Texinfo was invented.)
% Please try the latest version of texinfo.tex before submitting bug
% reports; you can get the latest version from:
% (the Texinfo home page), or
% (and all CTAN mirrors, see
% The texinfo.tex in any given distribution could well be out
% of date, so if that's what you're using, please check.
% Send bug reports to Please include including a
% complete document in each bug report with which we can reproduce the
% problem. Patches are, of course, greatly appreciated.
% To process a Texinfo manual with TeX, it's most reliable to use the
% texi2dvi shell script that comes with the distribution. For a simple
% manual foo.texi, however, you can get away with this:
% tex foo.texi
% texindex foo.??
% tex foo.texi
% tex foo.texi
% dvips foo.dvi -o # or whatever; this makes
% The extra TeX runs get the cross-reference information correct.
% Sometimes one run after texindex suffices, and sometimes you need more
% than two; texi2dvi does it as many times as necessary.
% It is possible to adapt texinfo.tex for other languages, to some
% extent. You can get the existing language-specific files from the
% full Texinfo distribution.
% The GNU Texinfo home page is
\message{Loading texinfo [version \texinfoversion]:}
% If in a .fmt file, print the version number
% and turn on active characters that we couldn't do earlier because
% they might have appeared in the input file name.
\everyjob{\message{[Texinfo version \texinfoversion]}%
\catcode`+=\active \catcode`\_=\active}
% We never want plain's \outer definition of \+ in Texinfo.
% For @tex, we can use \tabalign.
\let\+ = \relax
% Save some plain tex macros whose names we will redefine.
% If this character appears in an error message or help string, it
% starts a new line in the output.
\newlinechar = `^^J
% Use TeX 3.0's \inputlineno to get the line number, for better error
% messages, but if we're using an old version of TeX, don't do anything.
\let\linenumber = \empty % Pre-3.0.
% Set up fixed words for English if not already set.
\ifx\putwordAppendix\undefined \gdef\putwordAppendix{Appendix}\fi
\ifx\putwordChapter\undefined \gdef\putwordChapter{Chapter}\fi
\ifx\putwordfile\undefined \gdef\putwordfile{file}\fi
\ifx\putwordin\undefined \gdef\putwordin{in}\fi
\ifx\putwordIndexIsEmpty\undefined \gdef\putwordIndexIsEmpty{(Index is empty)}\fi
\ifx\putwordIndexNonexistent\undefined \gdef\putwordIndexNonexistent{(Index is nonexistent)}\fi
\ifx\putwordInfo\undefined \gdef\putwordInfo{Info}\fi
\ifx\putwordInstanceVariableof\undefined \gdef\putwordInstanceVariableof{Instance Variable of}\fi
\ifx\putwordMethodon\undefined \gdef\putwordMethodon{Method on}\fi
\ifx\putwordNoTitle\undefined \gdef\putwordNoTitle{No Title}\fi
\ifx\putwordof\undefined \gdef\putwordof{of}\fi
\ifx\putwordon\undefined \gdef\putwordon{on}\fi
\ifx\putwordpage\undefined \gdef\putwordpage{page}\fi
\ifx\putwordsection\undefined \gdef\putwordsection{section}\fi
\ifx\putwordSection\undefined \gdef\putwordSection{Section}\fi
\ifx\putwordsee\undefined \gdef\putwordsee{see}\fi
\ifx\putwordSee\undefined \gdef\putwordSee{See}\fi
\ifx\putwordShortTOC\undefined \gdef\putwordShortTOC{Short Contents}\fi
\ifx\putwordTOC\undefined \gdef\putwordTOC{Table of Contents}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJan\undefined \gdef\putwordMJan{January}\fi
\ifx\putwordMFeb\undefined \gdef\putwordMFeb{February}\fi
\ifx\putwordMMar\undefined \gdef\putwordMMar{March}\fi
\ifx\putwordMApr\undefined \gdef\putwordMApr{April}\fi
\ifx\putwordMMay\undefined \gdef\putwordMMay{May}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJun\undefined \gdef\putwordMJun{June}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJul\undefined \gdef\putwordMJul{July}\fi
\ifx\putwordMAug\undefined \gdef\putwordMAug{August}\fi
\ifx\putwordMSep\undefined \gdef\putwordMSep{September}\fi
\ifx\putwordMOct\undefined \gdef\putwordMOct{October}\fi
\ifx\putwordMNov\undefined \gdef\putwordMNov{November}\fi
\ifx\putwordMDec\undefined \gdef\putwordMDec{December}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefmac\undefined \gdef\putwordDefmac{Macro}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefspec\undefined \gdef\putwordDefspec{Special Form}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefvar\undefined \gdef\putwordDefvar{Variable}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefopt\undefined \gdef\putwordDefopt{User Option}\fi
\ifx\putwordDeffunc\undefined \gdef\putwordDeffunc{Function}\fi
% In some macros, we cannot use the `\? notation---the left quote is
% in some cases the escape char.
\chardef\colonChar = `\:
\chardef\commaChar = `\,
\chardef\dotChar = `\.
\chardef\exclamChar= `\!
\chardef\questChar = `\?
\chardef\semiChar = `\;
\chardef\underChar = `\_
\chardef\spaceChar = `\ %
\chardef\spacecat = 10
% Ignore a token.
% The following is used inside several \edef's.
% Hyphenation fixes.
Flor-i-da Ghost-script Ghost-view Mac-OS ap-pen-dix bit-map bit-maps
data-base data-bases eshell fall-ing half-way long-est man-u-script
man-u-scripts mini-buf-fer mini-buf-fers over-view par-a-digm
par-a-digms rec-tan-gu-lar ro-bot-ics se-vere-ly set-up spa-ces
stand-alone strong-est time-stamp time-stamps which-ever white-space
wide-spread wrap-around
% Margin to add to right of even pages, to left of odd pages.
\newdimen\pagewidth \newdimen\pageheight
% For a final copy, take out the rectangles
% that mark overfull boxes (in case you have decided
% that the text looks ok even though it passes the margin).
% @| inserts a changebar to the left of the current line. It should
% surround any changed text. This approach does *not* work if the
% change spans more than two lines of output. To handle that, we would
% have adopt a much more difficult approach (putting marks into the main
% vertical list for the beginning and end of each change).
% \vadjust can only be used in horizontal mode.
% Append this vertical mode material after the current line in the output.
% We want to insert a rule with the height and depth of the current
% leading; that is exactly what \strutbox is supposed to record.
% \vadjust-items are inserted at the left edge of the type. So
% the \llap here moves out into the left-hand margin.
% For a thicker or thinner bar, change the `1pt'.
\vrule height\baselineskip width1pt
% This is the space between the bar and the text.
\hskip 12pt
% Sometimes it is convenient to have everything in the transcript file
% and nothing on the terminal. We don't just call \tracingall here,
% since that produces some useless output on the terminal. We also make
% some effort to order the tracing commands to reduce output in the log
% file; cf. trace.sty in LaTeX.
\def\gloggingall{\begingroup \globaldefs = 1 \loggingall \endgroup}%
\tracinglostchars2 % 2 gives us more in etex
\showboxbreadth\maxdimen \showboxdepth\maxdimen
\ifx\eTeXversion\undefined\else % etex gives us more logging
\tracingcommands3 % 3 gives us more in etex
% add check for \lastpenalty to plain's definitions. If the last thing
% we did was a \nobreak, we don't want to insert more space.
% For @cropmarks command.
% Do @cropmarks to get crop marks.
\let\cropmarks = \cropmarkstrue
% Dimensions to add cropmarks at corners.
% Added by P. A. MacKay, 12 Nov. 1986
\newdimen\outerhsize \newdimen\outervsize % set by the paper size routines
\newdimen\cornerlong \cornerlong=1pc
\newdimen\cornerthick \cornerthick=.3pt
\newdimen\topandbottommargin \topandbottommargin=.75in
% Main output routine.
\chardef\PAGE = 255
\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}
% \onepageout takes a vbox as an argument. Note that \pagecontents
% does insertions, but you have to call it yourself.
\ifcropmarks \hoffset=0pt \else \hoffset=\normaloffset \fi
\ifodd\pageno \advance\hoffset by \bindingoffset
\else \advance\hoffset by -\bindingoffset\fi
% Do this outside of the \shipout so @code etc. will be expanded in
% the headline as they should be, not taken literally (outputting ''code).
\setbox\headlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makeheadline}%
\setbox\footlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makefootline}%
% Have to do this stuff outside the \shipout because we want it to
% take effect in \write's, yet the group defined by the \vbox ends
% before the \shipout runs.
\escapechar = `\\ % use backslash in output files.
\indexdummies % don't expand commands in the output.
\normalturnoffactive % \ in index entries must not stay \, e.g., if
% the page break happens to be in the middle of an example.
% Do this early so pdf references go to the beginning of the page.
\ifpdfmakepagedest \pdfdest name{\the\pageno} xyz\fi
\ifcropmarks \vbox to \outervsize\bgroup
\hsize = \outerhsize
\vtop to0pt{%
\hfil % center the page within the outer (page) hsize.
\ifdim\ht\footlinebox > 0pt
% Only leave this space if the footline is nonempty.
% (We lessened \vsize for it in \oddfootingxxx.)
% The \baselineskip=24pt in plain's \makefootline has no effect.
\vskip 2\baselineskip
\egroup % end of \vbox\bgroup
\hfil\egroup % end of (centering) \line\bgroup
\vskip\topandbottommargin plus1fill minus1fill
\boxmaxdepth = \cornerthick
\vbox to0pt{\vss
\egroup % \vbox from first cropmarks clause
}% end of \shipout\vbox
}% end of group with \normalturnoffactive
\ifnum\outputpenalty>-20000 \else\dosupereject\fi
\newinsert\margin \dimen\margin=\maxdimen
\def\pagebody#1{\vbox to\pageheight{\boxmaxdepth=\maxdepth #1}}
{\catcode`\@ =11
% marginal hacks, juha@viisa.uucp (Juha Takala)
\ifvoid\margin\else % marginal info is present
\rlap{\kern\hsize\vbox to\z@{\kern1pt\box\margin \vss}}\fi
\dimen@=\dp#1 \unvbox#1
\ifvoid\footins\else\vskip\skip\footins\footnoterule \unvbox\footins\fi
\ifr@ggedbottom \kern-\dimen@ \vfil \fi}
% Here are the rules for the cropmarks. Note that they are
% offset so that the space between them is truly \outerhsize or \outervsize
% (P. A. MacKay, 12 November, 1986)
\def\ewtop{\vrule height\cornerthick depth0pt width\cornerlong}
{\hrule height\cornerthick depth\cornerlong width\cornerthick}}
\def\ewbot{\vrule height0pt depth\cornerthick width\cornerlong}
{\hrule height\cornerlong depth\cornerthick width\cornerthick}}
% Parse an argument, then pass it to #1. The argument is the rest of
% the input line (except we remove a trailing comment). #1 should be a
% macro which expects an ordinary undelimited TeX argument.
\parseargline\empty% Insert the \empty token, see \finishparsearg below.
{\obeylines %
\endgroup % End of the group started in \parsearg.
\argremovecomment #1\comment\ArgTerm%
% First remove any @comment, then any @c comment.
\def\argremovecomment#1\comment#2\ArgTerm{\argremovec #1\c\ArgTerm}
% Each occurence of `\^^M' or `<space>\^^M' is replaced by a single space.
% \argremovec might leave us with trailing space, e.g.,
% @end itemize @c foo
% This space token undergoes the same procedure and is eventually removed
% by \finishparsearg.
\def\argcheckspaces#1\^^M{\argcheckspacesX#1\^^M \^^M}
\def\argcheckspacesX#1 \^^M{\argcheckspacesY#1\^^M}
% We cannot use \next here, as it holds the macro to run;
% thus we reuse \temp.
% Put the space token in:
\temp#1 #3\ArgTerm
% If a _delimited_ argument is enclosed in braces, they get stripped; so
% to get _exactly_ the rest of the line, we had to prevent such situation.
% We prepended an \empty token at the very beginning and we expand it now,
% just before passing the control to \next.
% (Similarily, we have to think about #3 of \argcheckspacesY above: it is
% either the null string, or it ends with \^^M---thus there is no danger
% that a pair of braces would be stripped.
% But first, we have to remove the trailing space token.
\def\finishparsearg#1 \ArgTerm{\expandafter\next\expandafter{#1}}
% \parseargdef\foo{...}
% is roughly equivalent to
% \def\foo{\parsearg\Xfoo}
% \def\Xfoo#1{...}
% Actually, I use \csname\string\foo\endcsname, ie. \\foo, as it is my
% favourite TeX trick. --kasal, 16nov03
\expandafter \doparseargdef \csname\string#1\endcsname #1%
% Several utility definitions with active space:
\gdef\obeyedspace{ }
% Make each space character in the input produce a normal interword
% space in the output. Don't allow a line break at this space, as this
% is used only in environments like @example, where each line of input
% should produce a line of output anyway.
\gdef\sepspaces{\obeyspaces\let =\tie}
% If an index command is used in an @example environment, any spaces
% therein should become regular spaces in the raw index file, not the
% expansion of \tie (\leavevmode \penalty \@M \ ).
\gdef\unsepspaces{\let =\space}
\def\flushcr{\ifx\par\lisppar \def\next##1{}\else \let\next=\relax \fi \next}
% Define the framework for environments in texinfo.tex. It's used like this:
% \envdef\foo{...}
% \def\Efoo{...}
% It's the responsibility of \envdef to insert \begingroup before the
% actual body; @end closes the group after calling \Efoo. \envdef also
% defines \thisenv, so the current environment is known; @end checks
% whether the environment name matches. The \checkenv macro can also be
% used to check whether the current environment is the one expected.
% Non-false conditionals (@iftex, @ifset) don't fit into this, so they
% are not treated as enviroments; they don't open a group. (The
% implementation of @end takes care not to call \endgroup in this
% special case.)
% At runtime, environments start with this:
% initialize
% ... but they get defined via ``\envdef\foo{...}'':
% Check whether we're in the right environment:
% Evironment mismatch, #1 expected:
\errhelp = \EMsimple
\errmessage{This command can appear only \inenvironment\temp,
not \inenvironment\thisenv}%
out of any environment%
in environment \expandafter\string#1%
% @end foo executes the definition of \Efoo.
% But first, it executes a specialized version of \checkenv
\if 1\csname iscond.#1\endcsname
% The general wording of \badenverr may not be ideal, but... --kasal, 06nov03
\csname E#1\endcsname
\newhelp\EMsimple{Press RETURN to continue.}
%% Simple single-character @ commands
% @@ prints an @
% Kludge this until the fonts are right (grr).
% This is turned off because it was never documented
% and you can use @w{...} around a quote to suppress ligatures.
%% Define @` and @' to be the same as ` and '
%% but suppressing ligatures.
% Used to generate quoted braces.
\def\mylbrace {{\tt\char123}}
\def\myrbrace {{\tt\char125}}
% Definitions to produce \{ and \} commands for indices,
% and @{ and @} for the aux file.
\catcode`\{ = \other \catcode`\} = \other
\catcode`\[ = 1 \catcode`\] = 2
\catcode`\! = 0 \catcode`\\ = \other
% @comma{} to avoid , parsing problems.
\let\comma = ,
% Accents: @, @dotaccent @ringaccent @ubaraccent @udotaccent
% Others are defined by plain TeX: @` @' @" @^ @~ @= @u @v @H.
\let\, = \c
\let\dotaccent = \.
\def\ringaccent#1{{\accent23 #1}}
\let\tieaccent = \t
\let\ubaraccent = \b
\let\udotaccent = \d
% Other special characters: @questiondown @exclamdown @ordf @ordm
% Plain TeX defines: @AA @AE @O @OE @L (plus lowercase versions) @ss.
\def\ordf{\leavevmode\raise1ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize \underbar{a}}}
\def\ordm{\leavevmode\raise1ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize \underbar{o}}}
% Dotless i and dotless j, used for accents.
\ifx\temp\imacro \ptexi
\else\ifx\temp\jmacro \j
\else \errmessage{@dotless can be used only with i or j}%
% The \TeX{} logo, as in plain, but resetting the spacing so that a
% period following counts as ending a sentence. (Idea found in latex.)
\edef\TeX{\TeX \spacefactor=3000 }
% @LaTeX{} logo. Not quite the same results as the definition in
% latex.ltx, since we use a different font for the raised A; it's most
% convenient for us to use an explicitly smaller font, rather than using
% the \scriptstyle font (since we don't reset \scriptstyle and
% \scriptscriptstyle).
\vbox to \ht0{\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize A}\vss}}%
% Be sure we're in horizontal mode when doing a tie, since we make space
% equivalent to this in @example-like environments. Otherwise, a space
% at the beginning of a line will start with \penalty -- and
% since \penalty is valid in vertical mode, we'd end up putting the
% penalty on the vertical list instead of in the new paragraph.
{\catcode`@ = 11
% Avoid using \@M directly, because that causes trouble
% if the definition is written into an index file.
\global\let\tiepenalty = \@M
\gdef\tie{\leavevmode\penalty\tiepenalty\ }
% @: forces normal size whitespace following.
\def\:{\spacefactor=1000 }
% @* forces a line break.
% @/ allows a line break.
% @. is an end-of-sentence period.
\def\.{.\spacefactor=3000 }
% @! is an end-of-sentence bang.
\def\!{!\spacefactor=3000 }
% @? is an end-of-sentence query.
\def\?{?\spacefactor=3000 }
% @w prevents a word break. Without the \leavevmode, @w at the
% beginning of a paragraph, when TeX is still in vertical mode, would
% produce a whole line of output instead of starting the paragraph.
% @group ... @end group forces ... to be all on one page, by enclosing
% it in a TeX vbox. We use \vtop instead of \vbox to construct the box
% to keep its height that of a normal line. According to the rules for
% \topskip (p.114 of the TeXbook), the glue inserted is
% max (\topskip - \ht (first item), 0). If that height is large,
% therefore, no glue is inserted, and the space between the headline and
% the text is small, which looks bad.
% Another complication is that the group might be very large. This can
% cause the glue on the previous page to be unduly stretched, because it
% does not have much material. In this case, it's better to add an
% explicit \vfill so that the extra space is at the bottom. The
% threshold for doing this is if the group is more than \vfilllimit
% percent of a page (\vfilllimit can be changed inside of @tex).
\ifnum\catcode`\^^M=\active \else
\errhelp = \groupinvalidhelp
\errmessage{@group invalid in context where filling is enabled}%
\setbox\groupbox = \vtop\bgroup
% Do @comment since we are called inside an environment such as
% @example, where each end-of-line in the input causes an
% end-of-line in the output. We don't want the end-of-line after
% the `@group' to put extra space in the output. Since @group
% should appear on a line by itself (according to the Texinfo
% manual), we don't worry about eating any user text.
% The \vtop produces a box with normal height and large depth; thus, TeX puts
% \baselineskip glue before it, and (when the next line of text is done)
% \lineskip glue after it. Thus, space below is not quite equal to space
% above. But it's pretty close.
% To get correct interline space between the last line of the group
% and the first line afterwards, we have to propagate \prevdepth.
\endgraf % Not \par, as it may have been set to \lisppar.
\global\dimen1 = \prevdepth
\egroup % End the \vtop.
% \dimen0 is the vertical size of the group's box.
\dimen0 = \ht\groupbox \advance\dimen0 by \dp\groupbox
% \dimen2 is how much space is left on the page (more or less).
\dimen2 = \pageheight \advance\dimen2 by -\pagetotal
% if the group doesn't fit on the current page, and it's a big big
% group, force a page break.
\ifdim \dimen0 > \dimen2
\ifdim \pagetotal < \vfilllimit\pageheight
\prevdepth = \dimen1
% TeX puts in an \escapechar (i.e., `@') at the beginning of the help
% message, so this ends up printing `@group can only ...'.
group can only be used in environments such as @example,^^J%
where each line of input produces a line of output.}
% @need space-in-mils
% forces a page break if there is not space-in-mils remaining.
\newdimen\mil \mil=0.001in
% Old definition--didn't work.
%\parseargdef\need{\par %
%% This method tries to make TeX break the page naturally
%% if the depth of the box does not fit.
%\vtop to #1\mil{\vfil}\kern -#1\mil\nobreak
% Ensure vertical mode, so we don't make a big box in the middle of a
% paragraph.
% If the @need value is less than one line space, it's useless.
\dimen0 = #1\mil
\dimen2 = \ht\strutbox
\advance\dimen2 by \dp\strutbox
\ifdim\dimen0 > \dimen2
% Do a \strut just to make the height of this box be normal, so the
% normal leading is inserted relative to the preceding line.
% And a page break here is fine.
\vtop to #1\mil{\strut\vfil}%
% TeX does not even consider page breaks if a penalty added to the
% main vertical list is 10000 or more. But in order to see if the
% empty box we just added fits on the page, we must make it consider
% page breaks. On the other hand, we don't want to actually break the
% page after the empty box. So we use a penalty of 9999.
% There is an extremely small chance that TeX will actually break the
% page at this \penalty, if there are no other feasible breakpoints in
% sight. (If the user is using lots of big @group commands, which
% almost-but-not-quite fill up a page, TeX will have a hard time doing
% good page breaking, for example.) However, I could not construct an
% example where a page broke at this \penalty; if it happens in a real
% document, then we can reconsider our strategy.
% Back up by the size of the box, whether we did a page break or not.
\kern -#1\mil
% Do not allow a page break right after this kern.
% @br forces paragraph break (and is undocumented).
\let\br = \par
% @page forces the start of a new page.
% @exdent text....
% outputs text on separate line in roman font, starting at standard page margin
% This records the amount of indent in the innermost environment.
% That's how much \exdent should take out.
% This defn is used inside fill environments such as @defun.
\parseargdef\exdent{\hfil\break\hbox{\kern -\exdentamount{\rm#1}}\hfil\break}
% This defn is used inside nofill environments such as @example.
\parseargdef\nofillexdent{{\advance \leftskip by -\exdentamount
% @inmargin{WHICH}{TEXT} puts TEXT in the WHICH margin next to the current
% paragraph. For more general purposes, use the \margin insertion
% class. WHICH is `l' or `r'.
\newskip\inmarginspacing \inmarginspacing=1cm
\vtop to \strutdepth{%
% if you have multiple lines of stuff to put here, you'll need to
% make the vbox yourself of the appropriate size.
\llap{\ignorespaces #2\hskip\inmarginspacing}%
\rlap{\hskip\hsize \hskip\inmarginspacing \ignorespaces #2}%
\def\inleftmargin{\doinmargin l}
\def\inrightmargin{\doinmargin r}
% @inmargin{TEXT [, RIGHT-TEXT]}
% (if RIGHT-TEXT is given, use TEXT for left page, RIGHT-TEXT for right;
% else use TEXT for both).
\def\inmargin#1{\parseinmargin #1,,\finish}
\def\parseinmargin#1,#2,#3\finish{% not perfect, but better than nothing.
\setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
\def\lefttext{#1}% have both texts
\def\lefttext{#1}% have only one text
\def\temp{\inrightmargin\righttext}% odd page -> outside is right margin
% @include file insert text of that file as input.
\def\temp{\input #1 }%
\def\pushthisfilestackY #1\StackTerm #2\StackTerm {%
\def\errthisfilestackempty{\errmessage{Internal error:
the stack of filenames is empty.}}
% @center line
% outputs that line, centered.
\next{\hfil \ignorespaces#1\unskip \hfil}%
\advance\hsize by -\leftskip
\advance\hsize by -\rightskip
\def\centerV#1{\line{\kern\leftskip #1\kern\rightskip}}
% @sp n outputs n lines of vertical space
\parseargdef\sp{\vskip #1\baselineskip}
% @comment ...line which is ignored...
% @c is the same as @comment
% @ignore ... @end ignore is another way to write a comment
\def\comment{\begingroup \catcode`\^^M=\other%
\catcode`\@=\other \catcode`\{=\other \catcode`\}=\other%
{\catcode`\^^M=\other \gdef\commentxxx#1^^M{\endgroup}}
% @paragraphindent NCHARS
% We'll use ems for NCHARS, close enough.
% NCHARS can also be the word `asis' or `none'.
% We cannot feasibly implement @paragraphindent asis, though.
\def\asisword{asis} % no translation, these are keywords
\defaultparindent = 0pt
\defaultparindent = #1em
\parindent = \defaultparindent
% @exampleindent NCHARS
% We'll use ems for NCHARS like @paragraphindent.
% It seems @exampleindent asis isn't necessary, but
% I preserve it to make it similar to @paragraphindent.
\lispnarrowing = 0pt
\lispnarrowing = #1em
% @firstparagraphindent WORD
% If WORD is `none', then suppress indentation of the first paragraph
% after a section heading. If WORD is `insert', then do indent at such
% paragraphs.
% The paragraph indentation is suppressed or not by calling
% \suppressfirstparagraphindent, which the sectioning commands do.
% We switch the definition of this back and forth according to WORD.
% By default, we suppress indentation.
\let\suppressfirstparagraphindent = \dosuppressfirstparagraphindent
\let\suppressfirstparagraphindent = \relax
\errhelp = \EMsimple
\errmessage{Unknown @firstparagraphindent option `\temp'}%
% Here is how we actually suppress indentation. Redefine \everypar to
% \kern backwards by \parindent, and then reset itself to empty.
% We also make \indent itself not actually do anything until the next
% paragraph.
\global\everypar = {%
\kern -\parindent
\global \let \indent = \ptexindent
\global \let \noindent = \ptexnoindent
\global \everypar = {}%
% @asis just yields its argument. Used with @table, for example.
% @math outputs its argument in math mode.
% One complication: _ usually means subscripts, but it could also mean
% an actual _ character, as in @math{@var{some_variable} + 1}. So make
% _ active, and distinguish by seeing if the current family is \slfam,
% which is what @var uses.
\catcode\underChar = \active
\def_{\ifnum\fam=\slfam \_\else\sb\fi}%
% Another complication: we want \\ (and @\) to output a \ character.
% FYI, plain.tex uses \\ as a temporary control sequence (why?), but
% this is not advertised and we don't care. Texinfo does not
% otherwise define @\.
% The \mathchar is class=0=ordinary, family=7=ttfam, position=5C=\.
\def\mathbackslash{\ifnum\fam=\ttfam \mathchar"075C \else\backslash \fi}
\let\\ = \mathbackslash
\def\finishmath#1{#1$\endgroup} % Close the group opened by \tex.
% Some active characters (such as <) are spaced differently in math.
% We have to reset their definitions in case the @math was an argument
% to a command which sets the catcodes (such as @item or @section).
\catcode`^ = \active
\catcode`< = \active
\catcode`> = \active
\catcode`+ = \active
\let^ = \ptexhat
\let< = \ptexless
\let> = \ptexgtr
\let+ = \ptexplus
% @bullet and @minus need the same treatment as @math, just above.
% @dots{} outputs an ellipsis using the current font.
% We do .5em per period so that it has the same spacing in a typewriter
% font as three actual period characters.
\hbox to 1.5em{%
\hskip 0pt plus 0.25fil
\hskip 0pt plus 0.5fil
% @enddots{} is an end-of-sentence ellipsis.
% @comma{} is so commas can be inserted into text without messing up
% Texinfo's parsing.
\let\comma = ,
% @refill is a no-op.
% If working on a large document in chapters, it is convenient to
% be able to disable indexing, cross-referencing, and contents, for test runs.
% This is done with @novalidate (before @setfilename).
\newif\iflinks \linkstrue % by default we want the aux files.
\let\novalidate = \linksfalse
% @setfilename is done at the beginning of every texinfo file.
% So open here the files we need to have open while reading the input.
% This makes it possible to make a .fmt file for texinfo.
\fixbackslash % Turn off hack to swallow `\input texinfo'.
% Open the new aux file. TeX will close it automatically at exit.
\fi % \openindices needs to do some work in any case.
\let\setfilename=\comment % Ignore extra @setfilename cmds.
% If texinfo.cnf is present on the system, read it.
% Useful for site-wide @afourpaper, etc.
\openin 1 texinfo.cnf
\ifeof 1 \else \input texinfo.cnf \fi
\closein 1
\comment % Ignore the actual filename.
% Called from \setfilename.
% @bye.
% adobe `portable' document format
\let\pdfmkdest = \gobble
\let\pdfurl = \gobble
\let\endlink = \relax
\let\linkcolor = \relax
\let\pdfmakeoutlines = \relax
\pdfoutput = 1
\input pdfcolor
\pdfcatalog{/PageMode /UseOutlines}%
% without \immediate, pdftex seg faults when the same image is
% included twice. (Version 3.14159-pre-1.0-unofficial-20010704.)
\ifnum\pdftexversion < 14
\ifx\empty\imagewidth\else width \imagewidth \fi
\ifx\empty\imageheight\else height \imageheight \fi
\ifnum\pdftexversion < 14 \else
\pdfrefximage \pdflastximage
% We have to set dummies so commands such as @code in a section title
% aren't expanded.
\pdfdest name{#1} xyz%
\let\linkcolor = \Blue % was Cyan, but that seems light?
% Adding outlines to PDF; macros for calculating structure of outlines
% come from Petr Olsak
\def\expnumber#1{\expandafter\ifx\csname#1\endcsname\relax 0%
\else \csname#1\endcsname \fi}
\advance\tempnum by 1
% #1 is the section text. #2 is the pdf expression for the number
% of subentries (or empty, for subsubsections). #3 is the node
% text, which might be empty if this toc entry had no
% corresponding node. #4 is the page number.
% Generate a link to the node text if that exists; else, use the
% page number. We could generate a destination for the section
% text in the case where a section has no node, but it doesn't
% seem worthwhile, since most documents are normally structured.
\ifx\pdfoutlinedest\empty \def\pdfoutlinedest{#4}\fi
\pdfoutline goto name{\pdfmkpgn{\pdfoutlinedest}}#2{#1}%
% Thanh's hack / proper braces in bookmarks
\edef\mylbrace{\iftrue \string{\else}\fi}\let\{=\mylbrace
% Read toc silently, to get counts of subentries for \pdfoutline.
% use \def rather than \let here because we redefine \chapentry et
% al. a second time, below.
\input \jobname.toc
% Read toc second time, this time actually producing the outlines.
% The `-' means take the \expnumber as the absolute number of
% subentries, which we calculated on our first read of the .toc above.
% We use the node names as the destinations.
\def\numsubsubsecentry##1##2##3##4{% count is always zero
% PDF outlines are displayed using system fonts, instead of
% document fonts. Therefore we cannot use special characters,
% since the encoding is unknown. For example, the eogonek from
% Latin 2 (0xea) gets translated to a | character. Info from
% Staszek Wawrykiewicz, 19 Jan 2004 04:09:24 +0100.
% xx to do this right, we have to translate 8-bit characters to
% their "best" equivalent, based on the @documentencoding. Right
% now, I guess we'll just let the pdf reader have its way.
\input \jobname.toc
\def\makelinks #1,{%
\startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}
goto name{\pdfmkpgn{\the\pgn}}%
\linkcolor #1%
\advance\lnkcount by 1%
\def\pdfmklnk#1{\lnkcount=0\makelinks #1,END,}
\advance\filenamelength by 1
\ifnum\pdftexversion < 14
\let \startlink \pdfannotlink
\let \startlink \pdfstartlink
\startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
user{/Subtype /Link /A << /S /URI /URI (#1) >>}%
\else\ifx\first1\adn1 \else\ifx\first2\adn2 \else\ifx\first3\adn3
\else\ifx\first4\adn4 \else\ifx\first5\adn5 \else\ifx\first6\adn6
\else\ifx\first7\adn7 \else\ifx\first8\adn8 \else\ifx\first9\adn9
\startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]} goto name{\pdfmkpgn{#1}}
\linkcolor #1\endlink}
\fi % \ifx\pdfoutput
% Change the current font style to #1, remembering it in \curfontstyle.
% For now, we do not accumulate font styles: @b{@i{foo}} prints foo in
% italics, not bold italics.
\def\curfontstyle{#1}% not as a control sequence, because we are \edef'd.
\csname ten#1\endcsname % change the current font
% Select #1 fonts with the current style.
\def\selectfonts#1{\csname #1fonts\endcsname \csname\curfontstyle\endcsname}
\def\rm{\fam=0 \setfontstyle{rm}}
\def\it{\fam=\itfam \setfontstyle{it}}
\def\sl{\fam=\slfam \setfontstyle{sl}}
\def\bf{\fam=\bffam \setfontstyle{bf}}
\def\tt{\fam=\ttfam \setfontstyle{tt}}
% Texinfo sort of supports the sans serif font style, which plain TeX does not.
% So we set up a \sf.
\def\sf{\fam=\sffam \setfontstyle{sf}}
\let\li = \sf % Sometimes we call it \li, not \sf.
% We don't need math for this font style.
% Default leading.
\newdimen\textleading \textleading = 13.2pt
% Set the baselineskip to #1, and the lineskip and strut size
% correspondingly. There is no deep meaning behind these magic numbers
% used as factors; they just match (closely enough) what Knuth defined.
\def\strutdepthpercent {.29167}
\normalbaselineskip = #1\relax
\normallineskip = \lineskipfactor\normalbaselineskip
\setbox\strutbox =\hbox{%
\vrule width0pt height\strutheightpercent\baselineskip
depth \strutdepthpercent \baselineskip
% Set the font macro #1 to the font named #2, adding on the
% specified font prefix (normally `cm').
% #3 is the font's design size, #4 is a scale factor
\def\setfont#1#2#3#4{\font#1=\fontprefix#2#3 scaled #4}
% Use cm as the default font prefix.
% To specify the font prefix, you must define \fontprefix
% before you read in texinfo.tex.
% Support font families that don't use the same naming scheme as CM.
\def\rmbshape{bx} %where the normal face is bold
% Text fonts (11.2pt, magstep1).
% not really supported.
\font\texti=cmmi10 scaled \mainmagstep
\font\textsy=cmsy10 scaled \mainmagstep
% A few fonts for @defun names and args.
\def\df{\let\tentt=\deftt \let\tenbf = \defbf \let\tenttsl=\defttsl \bf}
% Fonts for indices, footnotes, small examples (9pt).
% Fonts for small examples (8pt).
% Fonts for title page (20.4pt):
\font\titlei=cmmi12 scaled \magstep3
\font\titlesy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep4
% Chapter (and unnumbered) fonts (17.28pt).
\font\chapi=cmmi12 scaled \magstep2
\font\chapsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep3
% Section fonts (14.4pt).
\font\seci=cmmi12 scaled \magstep1
\font\secsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep2
% Subsection fonts (13.15pt).
\font\sseci=cmmi12 scaled \magstephalf
\font\ssecsy=cmsy10 scaled 1315
% Reduced fonts for @acro in text (10pt).
% In order for the font changes to affect most math symbols and letters,
% we have to define the \textfont of the standard families. Since
% texinfo doesn't allow for producing subscripts and superscripts except
% in the main text, we don't bother to reset \scriptfont and
% \scriptscriptfont (which would also require loading a lot more fonts).
\textfont0=\tenrm \textfont1=\teni \textfont2=\tensy
\textfont\itfam=\tenit \textfont\slfam=\tensl \textfont\bffam=\tenbf
\textfont\ttfam=\tentt \textfont\sffam=\tensf
% The font-changing commands redefine the meanings of \tenSTYLE, instead
% of just \STYLE. We do this because \STYLE needs to also set the
% current \fam for math mode. Our \STYLE (e.g., \rm) commands hardwire
% \tenSTYLE to set the current font.
% Each font-changing command also sets the names \lsize (one size lower)
% and \lllsize (three sizes lower). These relative commands are used in
% the LaTeX logo and acronyms.
% This all needs generalizing, badly.
\let\tenrm=\textrm \let\tenit=\textit \let\tensl=\textsl
\let\tenbf=\textbf \let\tentt=\texttt \let\smallcaps=\textsc
\let\tensf=\textsf \let\teni=\texti \let\tensy=\textsy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{\textleading}}
\let\tenrm=\titlerm \let\tenit=\titleit \let\tensl=\titlesl
\let\tenbf=\titlebf \let\tentt=\titlett \let\smallcaps=\titlesc
\let\tensf=\titlesf \let\teni=\titlei \let\tensy=\titlesy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{25pt}}
\def\titlefont#1{{\titlefonts\rm #1}}
\let\tenrm=\chaprm \let\tenit=\chapit \let\tensl=\chapsl
\let\tenbf=\chapbf \let\tentt=\chaptt \let\smallcaps=\chapsc
\let\tensf=\chapsf \let\teni=\chapi \let\tensy=\chapsy \let\tenttsl=\chapttsl
\resetmathfonts \setleading{19pt}}
\let\tenrm=\secrm \let\tenit=\secit \let\tensl=\secsl
\let\tenbf=\secbf \let\tentt=\sectt \let\smallcaps=\secsc
\let\tensf=\secsf \let\teni=\seci \let\tensy=\secsy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{16pt}}
\let\tenrm=\ssecrm \let\tenit=\ssecit \let\tensl=\ssecsl
\let\tenbf=\ssecbf \let\tentt=\ssectt \let\smallcaps=\ssecsc
\let\tensf=\ssecsf \let\teni=\sseci \let\tensy=\ssecsy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{15pt}}
\let\subsubsecfonts = \subsecfonts
\let\tenrm=\reducedrm \let\tenit=\reducedit \let\tensl=\reducedsl
\let\tenbf=\reducedbf \let\tentt=\reducedtt \let\reducedcaps=\reducedsc
\let\tensf=\reducedsf \let\teni=\reducedi \let\tensy=\reducedsy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{10.5pt}}
\let\tenrm=\smallrm \let\tenit=\smallit \let\tensl=\smallsl
\let\tenbf=\smallbf \let\tentt=\smalltt \let\smallcaps=\smallsc
\let\tensf=\smallsf \let\teni=\smalli \let\tensy=\smallsy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{10.5pt}}
\let\tenrm=\smallerrm \let\tenit=\smallerit \let\tensl=\smallersl
\let\tenbf=\smallerbf \let\tentt=\smallertt \let\smallcaps=\smallersc
\let\tensf=\smallersf \let\teni=\smalleri \let\tensy=\smallersy
\resetmathfonts \setleading{9.5pt}}
% Set the fonts to use with the @small... environments.
\let\smallexamplefonts = \smallfonts
% About \smallexamplefonts. If we use \smallfonts (9pt), @smallexample
% can fit this many characters:
% 8.5x11=86 smallbook=72 a4=90 a5=69
% If we use \scriptfonts (8pt), then we can fit this many characters:
% 8.5x11=90+ smallbook=80 a4=90+ a5=77
% For me, subjectively, the few extra characters that fit aren't worth
% the additional smallness of 8pt. So I'm making the default 9pt.
% By the way, for comparison, here's what fits with @example (10pt):
% 8.5x11=71 smallbook=60 a4=75 a5=58
% I wish the USA used A4 paper.
% --karl, 24jan03.
% Set up the default fonts, so we can use them for creating boxes.
\textfonts \rm
% Define these so they can be easily changed for other fonts.
% Count depth in font-changes, for error checks
\newcount\fontdepth \fontdepth=0
% Fonts for short table of contents.
\setfont\shortcontbf\bfshape{10}{\magstep1} % no cmb12
%% Add scribe-like font environments, plus @l for inline lisp (usually sans
%% serif) and @ii for TeX italic
% \smartitalic{ARG} outputs arg in italics, followed by an italic correction
% unless the following character is such as not to need one.
\def\smartslanted#1{{\ifusingtt\ttsl\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
\def\smartitalic#1{{\ifusingtt\ttsl\it #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
% like \smartslanted except unconditionally uses \ttsl.
% @var is set to this for defun arguments.
\def\ttslanted#1{{\ttsl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
% like \smartslanted except unconditionally use \sl. We never want
% ttsl for book titles, do we?
\def\cite#1{{\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
\def\b#1{{\bf #1}}
% We can't just use \exhyphenpenalty, because that only has effect at
% the end of a paragraph. Restore normal hyphenation at the end of the
% group within which \nohyphenation is presumably called.
\def\nohyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = -1 \aftergroup\restorehyphenation}
\def\restorehyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = `- }
% Set sfcode to normal for the chars that usually have another value.
% Can't use plain's \frenchspacing because it uses the `\x notation, and
% sometimes \x has an active definition that messes things up.
\sfcode\dotChar =\@m \sfcode\questChar=\@m \sfcode\exclamChar=\@m
\sfcode\colonChar=\@m \sfcode\semiChar =\@m \sfcode\commaChar =\@m
{\tt \rawbackslash \frenchspacing #1}%
\def\key#1{{\keyrm\textfont2=\keysy \leavevmode\hbox{%
% The old definition, with no lozenge:
%\def\key #1{{\ttsl \nohyphenation \uppercase{#1}}\null}
\def\ctrl #1{{\tt \rawbackslash \hat}#1}
% @file, @option are the same as @samp.
% @code is a modification of @t,
% which makes spaces the same size as normal in the surrounding text.
% Change normal interword space to be same as for the current font.
\spaceskip = \fontdimen2\font
% Switch to typewriter.
% But `\ ' produces the large typewriter interword space.
\def\ {{\spaceskip = 0pt{} }}%
% Turn off hyphenation.
% We *must* turn on hyphenation at `-' and `_' in @code.
% Otherwise, it is too hard to avoid overfull hboxes
% in the Emacs manual, the Library manual, etc.
% Unfortunately, TeX uses one parameter (\hyphenchar) to control
% both hyphenation at - and hyphenation within words.
% We must therefore turn them both off (\tclose does that)
% and arrange explicitly to hyphenate at a dash.
% -- rms.
\catcode`\-=\active \let-\codedash
\catcode`\_=\active \let_\codeunder
% this is all so @math{@code{var_name}+1} can work. In math mode, _
% is "active" (mathcode"8000) and \normalunderscore (or \char95, etc.)
% will therefore expand the active definition of _, which is us
% (inside @code that is), therefore an endless loop.
\mathchar"075F % class 0=ordinary, family 7=ttfam, pos 0x5F=_.
\else\normalunderscore \fi
\def\codex #1{\tclose{#1}\endgroup}
% @kbd is like @code, except that if the argument is just one @key command,
% then @kbd has no effect.
% @kbdinputstyle -- arg is `distinct' (@kbd uses slanted tty font always),
% `example' (@kbd uses ttsl only inside of @example and friends),
% or `code' (@kbd uses normal tty font always).
\errhelp = \EMsimple
\errmessage{Unknown @kbdinputstyle option `\arg'}%
% Default is `distinct.'
\kbdinputstyle distinct
\ifx\one\xkey\ifx\threex\three \key{#2}%
% For @url, @env, @command quotes seem unnecessary, so use \code.
% @uref (abbreviation for `urlref') takes an optional (comma-separated)
% second argument specifying the text to display and an optional third
% arg as text to display instead of (rather than in addition to) the url
% itself. First (mandatory) arg is the url. Perhaps eventually put in
% a hypertex \special here.
\def\uref#1{\douref #1,,,\finish}
\setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #3}%
\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
\unhbox0 % third arg given, show only that
\setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
\unhbox0 % PDF: 2nd arg given, show only it
\unhbox0\ (\code{#1})% DVI: 2nd arg given, show both it and url
\code{#1}% only url given, so show it
% rms does not like angle brackets --karl, 17may97.
% So now @email is just like @uref, unless we are pdf.
%\def\email#1{\angleleft{\tt #1}\angleright}
\setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
% Check if we are currently using a typewriter font. Since all the
% Computer Modern typewriter fonts have zero interword stretch (and
% shrink), and it is reasonable to expect all typewriter fonts to have
% this property, we can check that font parameter.
\def\ifmonospace{\ifdim\fontdimen3\font=0pt }
% Typeset a dimension, e.g., `in' or `pt'. The only reason for the
% argument is to make the input look right: @dmn{pt} instead of @dmn{}pt.
\def\dmn#1{\thinspace #1}
% @l was never documented to mean ``switch to the Lisp font'',
% and it is not used as such in any manual I can find. We need it for
% Polish suppressed-l. --karl, 22sep96.
%\def\l#1{{\li #1}\null}
% Explicit font changes: @r, @sc, undocumented @ii.
\def\r#1{{\rm #1}} % roman font
\def\sc#1{{\smallcaps#1}} % smallcaps font
\def\ii#1{{\it #1}} % italic font
\def\acronym#1{\doacronym #1,,\finish}
{\selectfonts\lsize #1}%
\ifx\temp\empty \else
\space ({\unsepspaces \ignorespaces \temp \unskip})%
% @pounds{} is a sterling sign, which is in the CM italic font.
% @registeredsymbol - R in a circle. The font for the R should really
% be smaller yet, but lllsize is the best we can do for now.
% Adapted from the plain.tex definition of \copyright.
$^{{\ooalign{\hfil\raise.07ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize R}%
\message{page headings,}
\newskip\titlepagetopglue \titlepagetopglue = 1.5in
\newskip\titlepagebottomglue \titlepagebottomglue = 2pc
% First the title page. Must do @settitle before @titlepage.
% Do an implicit @contents or @shortcontents after @end titlepage if the
% user says @setcontentsaftertitlepage or @setshortcontentsaftertitlepage.
\let\setcontentsaftertitlepage = \setcontentsaftertitlepagetrue
\let\setshortcontentsaftertitlepage = \setshortcontentsaftertitlepagetrue
\parseargdef\shorttitlepage{\begingroup\hbox{}\vskip 1.5in \chaprm \centerline{#1}%
% Open one extra group, as we want to close it in the middle of \Etitlepage.
\parindent=0pt \textfonts
% Leave some space at the very top of the page.
% No rule at page bottom unless we print one at the top with @title.
% Most title ``pages'' are actually two pages long, with space
% at the top of the second. We don't want the ragged left on the second.
\let\oldpage = \page
\let\page = \oldpage
% It is important to do the page break before ending the group,
% because the headline and footline are only empty inside the group.
% If we use the new definition of \page, we always get a blank page
% after the title page, which we certainly don't want.
% Need this before the \...aftertitlepage checks so that if they are
% in effect the toc pages will come out with page numbers.
% If they want short, they certainly want long too.
\global\let\shortcontents = \relax
\global\let\contents = \relax
\global\let\contents = \relax
\global\let\shortcontents = \relax
\vskip4pt \hrule height 2pt width \hsize
%%% Macros to be used within @titlepage:
\def\subtitlefont{\subtitlerm \normalbaselineskip = 13pt \normalbaselines}
\def\authorfont{\authorrm \normalbaselineskip = 16pt \normalbaselines
\leftline{\titlefonts\rm #1}
% print a rule at the page bottom also.
\vskip4pt \hrule height 4pt width \hsize \vskip4pt
{\subtitlefont \rightline{#1}}%
% @author should come last, but may come many times.
% It can also be used inside @quotation.
\def\quotationauthor{#1}% printed in \Equotation.
\ifseenauthor\else \vskip 0pt plus 1filll \seenauthortrue \fi
{\authorfont \leftline{#1}}%
%%% Set up page headings and footings.
\newtoks\evenheadline % headline on even pages
\newtoks\oddheadline % headline on odd pages
\newtoks\evenfootline % footline on even pages
\newtoks\oddfootline % footline on odd pages
% Now make TeX use those variables
\headline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddheadline
\else \the\evenheadline \fi}}
\footline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddfootline
\else \the\evenfootline \fi}\HEADINGShook}
% Commands to set those variables.
% For example, this is what @headings on does
% @evenheading @thistitle|@thispage|@thischapter
% @oddheading @thischapter|@thispage|@thistitle
% @evenfooting @thisfile||
% @oddfooting ||@thisfile
\def\evenheadingxxx #1{\evenheadingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\evenheadingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\def\oddheadingxxx #1{\oddheadingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\oddheadingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\def\evenfootingxxx #1{\evenfootingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\evenfootingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\def\oddfootingxxx #1{\oddfootingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\oddfootingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\global\oddfootline = {\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}%
% Leave some space for the footline. Hopefully ok to assume
% @evenfooting will not be used by itself.
\global\advance\pageheight by -\baselineskip
\global\advance\vsize by -\baselineskip
% @headings double turns headings on for double-sided printing.
% @headings single turns headings on for single-sided printing.
% @headings off turns them off.
% @headings on same as @headings double, retained for compatibility.
% @headings after turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings doubleafter turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings singleafter turns on single-sided headings after this page.
% By default, they are off at the start of a document,
% and turned `on' after @end titlepage.
\def\headings #1 {\csname HEADINGS#1\endcsname}
\global\evenheadline={\hfil} \global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddheadline={\hfil} \global\oddfootline={\hfil}}
% When we turn headings on, set the page number to 1.
% For double-sided printing, put current file name in lower left corner,
% chapter name on inside top of right hand pages, document
% title on inside top of left hand pages, and page numbers on outside top
% edge of all pages.
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
% For single-sided printing, chapter title goes across top left of page,
% page number on top right.
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
% Subroutines used in generating headings
% This produces Day Month Year style of output.
% Only define if not already defined, in case a txi-??.tex file has set
% up a different format (e.g., txi-cs.tex does this).
% @settitle line... specifies the title of the document, for headings.
% It generates no output of its own.
% Tables -- @table, @ftable, @vtable, @item(x).
% default indentation of table text
\newdimen\tableindent \tableindent=.8in
% default indentation of @itemize and @enumerate text
\newdimen\itemindent \itemindent=.3in
% margin between end of table item and start of table text.
\newdimen\itemmargin \itemmargin=.1in
% used internally for \itemindent minus \itemmargin
% Note @table, @ftable, and @vtable define @item, @itemx, etc., with
% these defs.
% They also define \itemindex
% to index the item name in whatever manner is desired (perhaps none).
\def\internalBitem{\smallbreak \parsearg\itemzzz}
\def\internalBitemx{\itemxpar \parsearg\itemzzz}
\def\itemzzz #1{\begingroup %
\advance\hsize by -\rightskip
\advance\hsize by -\tableindent
\nobreak % This prevents a break before @itemx.
% If the item text does not fit in the space we have, put it on a line
% by itself, and do not allow a page break either before or after that
% line. We do not start a paragraph here because then if the next
% command is, e.g., @kindex, the whatsit would get put into the
% horizontal list on a line by itself, resulting in extra blank space.
\ifdim \wd0>\itemmax
% Make this a paragraph so we get the \parskip glue and wrapping,
% but leave it ragged-right.
\advance\leftskip by-\tableindent
\advance\hsize by\tableindent
\advance\rightskip by0pt plus1fil
% We're going to be starting a paragraph, but we don't want the
% \parskip glue -- logically it's part of the @item we just started.
\nobreak \vskip-\parskip
% Stop a page break at the \parskip glue coming up. (Unfortunately
% we can't prevent a possible page break at the following
% \baselineskip glue.) However, if what follows is an environment
% such as @example, there will be no \parskip glue; then
% the negative vskip we just would cause the example and the item to
% crash together. So we use this bizarre value of 10001 as a signal
% to \aboveenvbreak to insert \parskip glue after all.
% (Possibly there are other commands that could be followed by
% @example which need the same treatment, but not section titles; or
% maybe section titles are the only special case and they should be
% penalty 10001...)
\penalty 10001
% The item text fits into the space. Start a paragraph, so that the
% following text (if any) will end up on the same line.
% Do this with kerns and \unhbox so that if there is a footnote in
% the item text, it can migrate to the main vertical list and
% eventually be printed.
\dimen0 = \itemmax \advance\dimen0 by \itemmargin \advance\dimen0 by -\wd0
\def\item{\errmessage{@item while not in a list environment}}
\def\itemx{\errmessage{@itemx while not in a list environment}}
% @table, @ftable, @vtable.
\def\itemindex ##1{\doind {fn}{\code{##1}}}%
\def\itemindex ##1{\doind {vr}{\code{##1}}}%
\edef\temp{\noexpand\tablez #1\space\space\space}%
}\temp \endtablez
\def\tablez #1 #2 #3 #4\endtablez{%
\ifnum 0#1>0 \advance \leftskip by #1\mil \fi
\ifnum 0#2>0 \tableindent=#2\mil \fi
\ifnum 0#3>0 \advance \rightskip by #3\mil \fi
\advance \itemmax by -\itemmargin
\advance \leftskip by \tableindent
\parindent = 0pt
\parskip = \smallskipamount
\ifdim \parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi
\let\item = \internalBitem
\let\itemx = \internalBitemx
% This is the counter used by @enumerate, which is really @itemize
\newcount \itemno
\advance\itemmax by -\itemmargin
\advance\leftskip by \itemindent
\ifdim\parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi
% @itemize with no arg is equivalent to @itemize @bullet.
% Definition of @item while inside @itemize and @enumerate.
\advance\itemno by 1 % for enumerations
{\let\par=\endgraf \smallbreak}% reasonable place to break
% If the document has an @itemize directly after a section title, a
% \nobreak will be last on the list, and \sectionheading will have
% done a \vskip-\parskip. In that case, we don't want to zero
% parskip, or the item text will crash with the heading. On the
% other hand, when there is normal text preceding the item (as there
% usually is), we do want to zero parskip, or there would be too much
% space. In that case, we won't have a \nobreak before. At least
% that's the theory.
\ifnum\lastpenalty<10000 \parskip=0in \fi
\hbox to 0pt{\hss \itemcontents \kern\itemmargin}%
\vadjust{\penalty 1200}}% not good to break after first line of item.
% \splitoff TOKENS\endmark defines \first to be the first token in
% TOKENS, and \rest to be the remainder.
% Allow an optional argument of an uppercase letter, lowercase letter,
% or number, to specify the first label in the enumerated list. No
% argument is the same as `1'.
\envparseargdef\enumerate{\enumeratey #1 \endenumeratey}
\def\enumeratey #1 #2\endenumeratey{%
% If we were given no argument, pretend we were given `1'.
\ifx\thearg\empty \def\thearg{1}\fi
% Detect if the argument is a single token. If so, it might be a
% letter. Otherwise, the only valid thing it can be is a number.
% (We will always have one token, because of the test we just made.
% This is a good thing, since \splitoff doesn't work given nothing at
% all -- the first parameter is undelimited.)
% Only one token in the argument. It could still be anything.
% A ``lowercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is nonzero.
% An ``uppercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is both nonzero, and
% not equal to itself.
% Otherwise, we assume it's a number.
% We need the \relax at the end of the \ifnum lines to stop TeX from
% continuing to look for a <number>.
\numericenumerate % a number (we hope)
% It's a letter.
\lowercaseenumerate % lowercase letter
\uppercaseenumerate % uppercase letter
% Multiple tokens in the argument. We hope it's a number.
% An @enumerate whose labels are integers. The starting integer is
% given in \thearg.
\itemno = \thearg
% The starting (lowercase) letter is in \thearg.
\itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
% Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
\errmessage{No more lowercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger
% The starting (uppercase) letter is in \thearg.
\itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
% Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
\errmessage{No more uppercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger
% Call \doitemize, adding a period to the first argument and supplying the
% common last two arguments. Also subtract one from the initial value in
% \itemno, since @item increments \itemno.
\advance\itemno by -1
% @alphaenumerate and @capsenumerate are abbreviations for giving an arg
% to @enumerate.
% @multitable macros
% Amy Hendrickson, 8/18/94, 3/6/96
% @multitable ... @end multitable will make as many columns as desired.
% Contents of each column will wrap at width given in preamble. Width
% can be specified either with sample text given in a template line,
% or in percent of \hsize, the current width of text on page.
% Table can continue over pages but will only break between lines.
% To make preamble:
% Either define widths of columns in terms of percent of \hsize:
% @multitable @columnfractions .25 .3 .45
% @item ...
% Numbers following @columnfractions are the percent of the total
% current hsize to be used for each column. You may use as many
% columns as desired.
% Or use a template:
% @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
% @item ...
% using the widest term desired in each column.
% Each new table line starts with @item, each subsequent new column
% starts with @tab. Empty columns may be produced by supplying @tab's
% with nothing between them for as many times as empty columns are needed,
% ie, @tab@tab@tab will produce two empty columns.
% @item, @tab do not need to be on their own lines, but it will not hurt
% if they are.
% Sample multitable:
% @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
% @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff @tab third col
% @item
% first col stuff
% @tab
% second col stuff
% @tab
% third col
% @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff
% @tab Many paragraphs of text may be used in any column.
% They will wrap at the width determined by the template.
% @item@tab@tab This will be in third column.
% @end multitable
% Default dimensions may be reset by user.
% @multitableparskip is vertical space between paragraphs in table.
% @multitableparindent is paragraph indent in table.
% @multitablecolmargin is horizontal space to be left between columns.
% @multitablelinespace is space to leave between table items, baseline
% to baseline.
% 0pt means it depends on current normal line spacing.
% Macros used to set up halign preamble:
% #1 is the @columnfraction, usually a decimal number like .5, but might
% be just 1. We just use it, whatever it is.
\def\pickupwholefraction#1 {%
\global\advance\colcount by 1
\expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{#1\hsize}%
\let\go = \relax
\global\advance\colcount by 1
\setbox0=\hbox{#1\unskip\space}% Add a normal word space as a
% separator; typically that is always in the input, anyway.
\expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{\the\wd0}%
% Put the argument back for the \pickupwholefraction call, so
% we'll always have a period there to be parsed.
\let\go = \setuptable
% multitable-only commands.
% @headitem starts a heading row, which we typeset in bold.
% Assignments have to be global since we are inside the implicit group
% of an alignment entry. Note that \everycr resets \everytab.
\def\headitem{\checkenv\multitable \crcr \global\everytab={\bf}\the\everytab}%
% A \tab used to include \hskip1sp. But then the space in a template
% line is not enough. That is bad. So let's go back to just `&' until
% we encounter the problem it was intended to solve again.
% --karl,, 20apr99.
\def\tab{\checkenv\multitable &\the\everytab}%
% @multitable ... @end multitable definitions:
\newtoks\everytab % insert after every tab.
% @item within a multitable starts a normal row.
\everycr = {%
\global\colcount=0 % Reset the column counter.
% Check for saved footnotes, etc.
% Keeps underfull box messages off when table breaks over pages.
% Maybe so, but it also creates really weird page breaks when the
% table breaks over pages. Wouldn't \vfil be better? Wait until the
% problem manifests itself, so it can be fixed for real --karl.
% To parse everything between @multitable and @item:
\setuptable#1 \endsetuptable
% This preamble sets up a generic column definition, which will
% be used as many times as user calls for columns.
% \vtop will set a single line and will also let text wrap and
% continue for many paragraphs if desired.
\halign\bgroup &%
\global\advance\colcount by 1
% Use the current \colcount to find the correct column width:
\hsize=\expandafter\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname
% In order to keep entries from bumping into each other
% we will add a \leftskip of \multitablecolspace to all columns after
% the first one.
% If a template has been used, we will add \multitablecolspace
% to the width of each template entry.
% If the user has set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize we will
% use that dimension as the width of the column, and the \leftskip
% will keep entries from bumping into each other. Table will start at
% left margin and final column will justify at right margin.
% Make sure we don't inherit \rightskip from the outer environment.
% The first column will be indented with the surrounding text.
\advance\hsize by\leftskip
\ifsetpercent \else
% If user has not set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize
% we will advance \hsize by \multitablecolspace.
\advance\hsize by \multitablecolspace
% In either case we will make \leftskip=\multitablecolspace:
% Ignoring space at the beginning and end avoids an occasional spurious
% blank line, when TeX decides to break the line at the space before the
% box from the multistrut, so the strut ends up on a line by itself.
% For example:
% @multitable @columnfractions .11 .89
% @item @code{#}
% @tab Legal holiday which is valid in major parts of the whole country.
% Is automatically provided with highlighting sequences respectively
% marking characters.
\egroup % end the \halign
\def\setmultitablespacing{% test to see if user has set \multitablelinespace.
% If so, do nothing. If not, give it an appropriate dimension based on
% current baselineskip.
\global\advance\multitablelinespace by-\ht0
%% strut to put in table in case some entry doesn't have descenders,
%% to keep lines equally spaced
\let\multistrut = \strut
%% FIXME: what is \box0 supposed to be?
\gdef\multistrut{\vrule height\multitablelinespace depth\dp0
width0pt\relax} \fi
%% Test to see if parskip is larger than space between lines of
%% table. If not, do nothing.
%% If so, set to same dimension as multitablelinespace.
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
%% than skip between lines in the table.
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
%% than skip between lines in the table.
% @iftex, @ifnotdocbook, @ifnothtml, @ifnotinfo, @ifnotplaintext,
% @ifnotxml always succeed. They currently do nothing; we don't
% attempt to check whether the conditionals are properly nested. But we
% have to remember that they are conditionals, so that @end doesn't
% attempt to close an environment group.
\expandafter\let\csname #1\endcsname = \relax
\expandafter\let\csname iscond.#1\endcsname = 1
% Ignore @ignore, @ifhtml, @ifinfo, and the like.
% Ignore text until a line `@end #1', keeping track of nested conditionals.
% A count to remember the depth of nesting.
% Scan in ``verbatim'' mode:
\catcode`\@ = \other
\catcode`\{ = \other
\catcode`\} = \other
% Make sure that spaces turn into tokens that match what \doignoretext wants.
% Count number of #1's that we've seen.
\doignorecount = 0
% Swallow text until we reach the matching `@end #1'.
\dodoignore {#1}%
{ \catcode`_=11 % We want to use \_STOP_ which cannot appear in texinfo source.
\obeylines %
% #1 contains the string `ifinfo'.
% Define a command to find the next `@end #1', which must be on a line
% by itself.
\long\def\doignoretext##1^^M@end #1{\doignoretextyyy##1^^M@#1\_STOP_}%
% And this command to find another #1 command, at the beginning of a
% line. (Otherwise, we would consider a line `@c @ifset', for
% example, to count as an @ifset for nesting.)
% And now expand that command.
\obeylines %
\doignoretext ^^M%
\ifx\temp\empty % Nothing found.
\else % Found a nested condition, ...
\advance\doignorecount by 1
\let\next\doignoretextyyy % ..., look for another.
% If we're here, #1 ends with ^^M\ifinfo (for example).
\next #1% the token \_STOP_ is present just after this macro.
% We have to swallow the remaining "\_STOP_".
\ifnum\doignorecount = 0 % We have just found the outermost @end.
\else % Still inside a nested condition.
\advance\doignorecount by -1
\let\next\doignoretext % Look for the next @end.
% Finish off ignored text.
% @set VAR sets the variable VAR to an empty value.
% @set VAR REST-OF-LINE sets VAR to the value REST-OF-LINE.
% Since we want to separate VAR from REST-OF-LINE (which might be
% empty), we can't just use \parsearg; we have to insert a space of our
% own to delimit the rest of the line, and then take it out again if we
% didn't need it.
% We rely on the fact that \parsearg sets \catcode`\ =10.
\parseargdef\set{\setyyy#1 \endsetyyy}
\def\setyyy#1 #2\endsetyyy{%
% Remove the trailing space \setxxx inserted.
\def\setzzz#1 \endsetzzz{\next{#1}}
% @clear VAR clears (i.e., unsets) the variable VAR.
\global\expandafter\let\csname SET#1\endcsname=\relax
% @value{foo} gets the text saved in variable foo.
\catcode`\- = \active \catcode`\_ = \active
\let\value = \expandablevalue
% We don't want these characters active, ...
\catcode`\-=\other \catcode`\_=\other
% ..., but we might end up with active ones in the argument if
% we're called from @code, as @code{@value{foo-bar_}}, though.
% So \let them to their normal equivalents.
\let-\realdash \let_\normalunderscore
% We have this subroutine so that we can handle at least some @value's
% properly in indexes (we call \makevalueexpandable in \indexdummies).
% The command has to be fully expandable (if the variable is set), since
% the result winds up in the index file. This means that if the
% variable's value contains other Texinfo commands, it's almost certain
% it will fail (although perhaps we could fix that with sufficient work
% to do a one-level expansion on the result, instead of complete).
\expandafter\ifx\csname SET#1\endcsname\relax
{[No value for ``#1'']}%
\message{Variable `#1', used in @value, is not set.}%
\csname SET#1\endcsname
% @ifset VAR ... @end ifset reads the `...' iff VAR has been defined
% with @set.
% To get special treatment of `@end ifset,' call \makeond and the redefine.
\expandafter\ifx\csname SET#2\endcsname\relax
#1% If not set, redefine \next.
% @ifclear VAR ... @end ifclear reads the `...' iff VAR has never been
% defined with @set, or has been undefined with @clear.
% The `\else' inside the `\doifset' parameter is a trick to reuse the
% above code: if the variable is not set, do nothing, if it is set,
% then redefine \next to \ifclearfail.
\def\ifclear{\parsearg{\doifset{\else \let\next=\ifclearfail}}}
% @dircategory CATEGORY -- specify a category of the dir file
% which this file should belong to. Ignore this in TeX.
% @defininfoenclose.
% Index generation facilities
% Define \newwrite to be identical to plain tex's \newwrite
% except not \outer, so it can be used within \newindex.
% \newindex {foo} defines an index named foo.
% It automatically defines \fooindex such that
% \fooindex of line... puts an entry in the index foo.
% It also defines \fooindfile to be the number of the output channel for
% the file that accumulates this index. The file's extension is foo.
% The name of an index should be no more than 2 characters long
% for the sake of vms.
\expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
\openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1 % Open the file
\expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{% % Define @#1index
% @defindex foo == \newindex{foo}
% Define @defcodeindex, like @defindex except put all entries in @code.
\expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
\openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1
% @synindex foo bar makes index foo feed into index bar.
% Do this instead of @defindex foo if you don't want it as a separate index.
% @syncodeindex foo bar similar, but put all entries made for index foo
% inside @code.
\def\synindex#1 #2 {\dosynindex\doindex{#1}{#2}}
\def\syncodeindex#1 #2 {\dosynindex\docodeindex{#1}{#2}}
% #1 is \doindex or \docodeindex, #2 the index getting redefined (foo),
% #3 the target index (bar).
% Only do \closeout if we haven't already done it, else we'll end up
% closing the target index.
\expandafter \ifx\csname donesynindex#2\endcsname \undefined
% The \closeout helps reduce unnecessary open files; the limit on the
% Acorn RISC OS is a mere 16 files.
\expandafter\let\csname\donesynindex#2\endcsname = 1
% redefine \fooindfile:
% redefine \fooindex:
% Define \doindex, the driver for all \fooindex macros.
% Argument #1 is generated by the calling \fooindex macro,
% and it is "foo", the name of the index.
% \doindex just uses \parsearg; it calls \doind for the actual work.
% This is because \doind is more useful to call from other macros.
% There is also \dosubind {index}{topic}{subtopic}
% which makes an entry in a two-level index such as the operation index.
\def\singleindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{#1}}
% like the previous two, but they put @code around the argument.
\def\singlecodeindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{\code{#1}}}
% Take care of Texinfo commands that can appear in an index entry.
% Since there are some commands we want to expand, and others we don't,
% we have to laboriously prevent expansion for those that we don't.
\def\@{@}% change to @@ when we switch to @ as escape char in index files.
\def\ {\realbackslash\space }%
% Need these in case \tex is in effect and \{ is a \delimiter again.
% But can't use \lbracecmd and \rbracecmd because texindex assumes
% braces and backslashes are used only as delimiters.
\let\{ = \mylbrace
\let\} = \myrbrace
% \definedummyword defines \#1 as \realbackslash #1\space, thus
% effectively preventing its expansion. This is used only for control
% words, not control letters, because the \space would be incorrect
% for control characters, but is needed to separate the control word
% from whatever follows.
% For control letters, we have \definedummyletter, which omits the
% space.
% These can be used both for control words that take an argument and
% those that do not. If it is followed by {arg} in the input, then
% that will dutifully get written to the index (or wherever).
\expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{\realbackslash ##1\space}%
\expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{\realbackslash ##1}%
% Do the redefinitions.
% For the aux file, @ is the escape character. So we want to redefine
% everything using @ instead of \realbackslash. When everything uses
% @, this will be simpler.
\def\ {@ }%
\let\{ = \lbraceatcmd
\let\} = \rbraceatcmd
% (See comments in \indexdummies.)
\expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{@##1\space}%
\expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{@##1}%
% Do the redefinitions.
% Called from \indexdummies and \atdummies. \definedummyword and
% \definedummyletter must be defined first.
% Non-English letters.